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  1. Abstract

    Delineating accurate flowlines using digital elevation models is a critical step for overland flow modeling. However, extracting surface flowlines from high‐resolution digital elevation models (HRDEMs) can be biased, partly due to the absence of information on the locations of anthropogenic drainage structures (ADS) such as bridges and culverts. Without the ADS, the roads may act as “digital dams” that prevent accurate delineation of flowlines. However, it is unclear what variables for terrain‐based hydrologic modeling can be used to mitigate the effect of “digital dams.” This study assessed the impacts of ADS locations, spatial resolution, depression processing methods, and flow direction algorithms on hydrologic connectivity in an agrarian landscape of Nebraska. The assessment was conducted based on the offset distances between modeled drainage crossings and actual ADS on the road. Results suggested that: (a) stream burning in combination with the D8 or D‐Infinity flow direction algorithm is the best option for modeling surface flowlines from HRDEMs in an agrarian landscape; (b) increasing the HRDEM resolution was found significant for facilitating accurate drainage crossing near ADS locations; and (c) D8 and D‐Infinity flow direction algorithms resulted in similar patterns of drainage crossing at ADS locations. This research is expected to result in improved parameter settings for HRDEMs‐based hydrologic modeling.

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  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 31, 2024
  3. Embedded devices, constrained by limited memory and processors, require deep learning models to be tailored to their specifications. This research explores customized model architectures for classifying drainage crossing images. Building on the foundational ResNet-18, this paper aims to maximize prediction accuracy, reduce memory size, and minimize inference latency. Various configurations were systematically probed by leveraging hardware-aware neural architecture search, accumulating 1,717 experimental results over six benchmarking variants. The experimental data analysis, enhanced by nn-Meter, provided a comprehensive understanding of inference latency across four different predictors. Significantly, a Pareto front analysis with three objectives of accuracy, latency, and memory resulted in five non-dominated solutions. These standout models showcased efficiency while retaining accuracy, offering a compelling alternative to the conventional ResNet-18 when deployed in resource-constrained environments. The paper concludes by highlighting insights drawn from the results and suggesting avenues for future exploration. 
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  4. The accurate and efficient determination of hydrologic connectivity has garnered significant attention from both academic and industrial sectors due to its critical implications for environmental management. While recent studies have leveraged the spatial characteristics of hydrologic features, the use of elevation models for identifying drainage paths can be influenced by flow barriers. To address these challenges, our focus in this study is on detecting drainage crossings through the application of advanced convolutional neural networks (CNNs). In pursuit of this goal, we use neural architecture search to automatically explore CNN models for identifying drainage crossings. Our approach not only attains high accuracy (over 97% for average precision) in object detection but also excels in efficiently inferring correct drainage crossings within a remarkably short time frame (0.268 ms). Furthermore, we perform a detailed profiling of our approach on GPU systems to analyze performance bottlenecks. 
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  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 25, 2024
  6. An efficient feature selection method can significantly boost results in classification problems. Despite ongoing improvement, hand-designed methods often fail to extract features capturing high- and mid-level representations at effective levels. In machine learning (Deep Learning), recent developments have improved upon these hand-designed methods by utilizing automatic extraction of features. Specifically, Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) are a highly successful technique for image classification which can automatically extract features, with ongoing learning and classification of these features. The purpose of this study is to detect hydraulic structures (i.e., bridges and culverts) that are important to overland flow modeling and environmental applications. The dataset used in this work is a relatively small dataset derived from 1-m LiDAR-derived Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) and National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) aerial imagery. The classes for our experiment consist of two groups: the ones with a bridge/culvert being present are considered "True", and those without a bridge/culvert are considered "False". In this paper, we use advanced CNN techniques, including Siamese Neural Networks (SNNs), Capsule Networks (CapsNets), and Graph Convolutional Networks (GCNs), to classify samples with similar topographic and spectral characteristics, an objective which is challenging utilizing traditional machine learning techniques, such as Support Vector Machine (SVM), Gaussian Classifier (GC), and Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM). The advanced CNN-based approaches combined with data pre-processing techniques (e.g., data augmenting) produced superior results. These approaches provide efficient, cost-effective, and innovative solutions to the identification of hydraulic structures. 
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