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  1. Using unreliable information sources generating conflicting evidence may lead to a large uncertainty, which significantly hurts the decision making process. Recently, many approaches have been taken to integrate conflicting data from multiple sources and/or fusing conflicting opinions from different entities. To explicitly deal with uncertainty, a belief model called Subjective Logic (SL), as a variant of Dumpster-Shafer Theory, has been proposed to represent subjective opinions and to merge multiple opinions by offering a rich volume of fusing operators, which have been used to solve many opinion inference problems in trust networks. However, the operators of SL are known to be lack of scalability in inferring unknown opinions from large network data as a result of the sequential procedures of merging multiple opinions. In addition, SL does not consider deriving opinions in the presence of conflicting evidence. In this work, we propose a hybrid inference method that combines SL and Probabilistic Soft Logic (PSL), namely, Collective Subjective Plus, CSL + , which is resistible to highly conflicting evidence or a lack of evidence. PSL can reason a belief in a collective manner to deal with large-scale network data, allowing high scalability based on relationships between opinions. However, PSL does not considermore »an uncertainty dimension in a subjective opinion. To take benefits from both SL and PSL, we proposed a hybrid approach called CSL + for achieving high scalability and high prediction accuracy for unknown opinions with uncertainty derived from a lack of evidence and/or conflicting evidence. Through the extensive experiments on four semi-synthetic and two real-world datasets, we showed that the CSL + outperforms the state-of-the-art belief model (i.e., SL), probabilistic inference models (i.e., PSL, CSL), and deep learning model (i.e., GCN-VAE-opinion) in terms of prediction accuracy, computational complexity, and real running time.« less
  2. Larochelle, Hugo ; Ranzato, Marc'Aurelio ; Hadsell, Raia ; Balcan, Maria ; Lin, Hsuan (Ed.)
    We present a novel multi-source uncertainty prediction approach that enables deep learning (DL) models to be actively trained with much less labeled data. By leveraging the second-order uncertainty representation provided by subjective logic (SL), we conduct evidence-based theoretical analysis and formally decompose the predicted entropy over multiple classes into two distinct sources of uncertainty: vacuity and dissonance, caused by lack of evidence and conflict of strong evidence, respectively. The evidence based entropy decomposition provides deeper insights on the nature of uncertainty, which can help effectively explore a large and high-dimensional unlabeled data space. We develop a novel loss function that augments DL based evidence prediction with uncertainty anchor sample identification. The accurately estimated multiple sources of uncertainty are systematically integrated and dynamically balanced using a data sampling function for label-efficient active deep learning (ADL). Experiments conducted over both synthetic and real data and comparison with competitive AL methods demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed ADL model.
  3. Demeniconi ; Carlotta ; Nitesh V. Chawla (Ed.)
    The motives and means of explicit state censorship have been well studied, both quantitatively and qualitatively. Self-censorship by media outlets, however, has not received nearly as much attention, mostly because it is difficult to systematically detect. We develop a novel approach to identify news media self-censorship by using social media as a sensor. We develop a hypothesis testing framework to identify and evaluate censored clusters of keywords and a near-linear-time algorithm (called GraphDPD) to identify the highest-scoring clusters as indicators of censorship. We evaluate the accuracy of our framework, versus other state-of-the-art algorithms, using both semi-synthetic and real-world data from Mexico and Venezuela during Year 2014. These tests demonstrate the capacity of our framework to identify self-censorship and provide an indicator of broader media freedom. The results of this study lay the foundation for detection, study, and policy-response to self-censorship.
  4. Mobile devices have been an integral part of our everyday lives. Users' increasing interaction with mobile devices brings in significant concerns on various types of potential privacy leakage, among which location privacy draws the most attention. Specifically, mobile users' trajectories constructed by location data may be captured by adversaries to infer sensitive information. In previous studies, differential privacy has been utilized to protect published trajectory data with rigorous privacy guarantee. Strong protection provided by differential privacy distorts the original locations or trajectories using stochastic noise to avoid privacy leakage. In this paper, we propose a novel location inference attack framework, iTracker, which simultaneously recovers multiple trajectories from differentially private trajectory data using the structured sparsity model. Compared with the traditional recovery methods based on single trajectory prediction, iTracker, which takes advantage of the correlation among trajectories discovered by the structured sparsity model, is more effective in recovering multiple private trajectories simultaneously. iTracker successfully attacks the existing privacy protection mechanisms based on differential privacy. We theoretically demonstrate the near-linear runtime of iTracker, and the experimental results using two real-world datasets show that iTracker outperforms existing recovery algorithms in recovering multiple trajectories.
  5. Stochastic optimization algorithms update models with cheap per-iteration costs sequentially, which makes them amenable for large-scale data analysis. Such algorithms have been widely studied for structured sparse models where the sparsity information is very specific, e.g., convex sparsity-inducing norms or ℓ0-norm. However, these norms cannot be directly applied to the problem of complex (non-convex) graph-structured sparsity models, which have important application in disease outbreak and social networks, etc. In this paper, we propose a stochastic gradient-based method for solving graph-structured sparsity constraint problems, not restricted to the least square loss. We prove that our algorithm enjoys a linear convergence up to a constant error, which is competitive with the counterparts in the batch learning setting. We conduct extensive experiments to show the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed algorithms.