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  1. Abstract

    Roll vortices are a series of large-scale turbulent eddies that nearly align with the mean wind direction and prevail in the hurricane boundary layer. In this study, the one-way nested WRF-LES model simulation results from Li et al. (J Atmos Sci 78(6):1847–1867,, 2021) are used to examine the structure and generation mechanism of roll vortices and associated coherent turbulence in the hurricane boundary layer during the landfall of Hurricane Harvey from 00 UTC 25 to 18 UTC 27 August 2017. Results indicate that roll vortices prevail in the hurricane boundary layer. The intense roll vortices and associated large turbulent eddies above them (at a height of ~ 200 to 3000 m) accumulate within a hurricane radius of 20–40 km. Their intensity is proportional to hurricane intensity during the simulation period. Before and during hurricane landfall, strong inflow convergence leads to horizontal advection of roll vortices throughout the entire hurricane boundary layer. Combined with the strong wind shear, the strongest roll vortices and associated large turbulent eddies are generated near the eyewall with suitable thermodynamic (Richardson number at around − 0.2 to 0.2) and dynamic conditions (strong negative inflow wind shear). After landfall, the decayed inflow weakens the inflow convergence and quickly reduces the strong roll vortices and associated large turbulent eddies. Diagnosis of vertical turbulent kinetic energy indicates that atmospheric pressure perturbation, caused by horizontal convergence, transfers the horizontal component of turbulence to the vertical component with a mean wavelength of about 1 km. The buoyancy term is weak and negative, and the large turbulent eddies are suppressed.

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  2. The extent of loss in a seismic hazard can be moderated with on-time allocation of funds and initiation of recovery tasks. Among various examinations conducted following the hazard, buildings damages are assessed as part of the reconnaissance survey to learn and document the impact of the earthquake on structures. The results of the survey are used in financial aid estimation, which is crucial for the community rapid recovery acts after the hazard. Due to the urgent need for this information, the amount of information gained per unit of time should be optimized. This article aims at answering the question of how to maximize the information gain in the presence of resource constraints by directing the efforts of a reconnaissance surveying team. A data-driven method is proposed that actively learns the patterns of damage and recommends the most informative buildings to be inspected while considering the resource limitations. The framework utilizes an efficient active learning method based on mutual information and developed for Gaussian process regression (GPR) to identify the information-rich cases. To assess the contribution of information gain and resource allocation in the overall outcome of the damage inference, two simulated earthquake testbeds are studied. It is shown that in a co-optimization approach, damage labels of the majority of buildings can be accurately predicted after 1 week of damage inspections.

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  3. Accurate specification of hurricane inner-core structure is critical to predicting the evolution of a hurricane. However, observations over hurricane inner cores are generally lacking. Previous studies have emphasized Tail Doppler radar (TDR) data assimilation to improve hurricane inner-core representation. Recently, Doppler wind lidar (DWL) has been used as an observing system to sample hurricane inner-core and environmental conditions. The NOAA P3 Hurricane Hunter aircraft has DWL installed and can obtain wind data over a hurricane’s inner core when the aircraft passes through the hurricane. In this study, we examine the impact of assimilating DWL winds and TDR radial winds on the prediction of Hurricane Earl (2016) with the NCEP operational Hurricane Weather Research and Forecasting (HWRF) system. A series of data assimilation experiments are conducted with the Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI)-based ensemble-3DVAR hybrid system to identify the best way to assimilate TDR and DWL data into the HWRF forecast system. The results show a positive impact of DWL data on hurricane analysis and prediction. Compared with the assimilation of u and v components, assimilation of DWL wind speed provides better hurricane track and intensity forecasts. Proper choices of data thinning distances (e.g., 5 km horizontal thinning and 70 hPa vertical thinning for DWL) can help achieve better analysis in terms of hurricane vortex representation and forecasts. In the analysis and forecast cycles, the combined TDR and DWL assimilation (DWL wind speed and TDR radial wind, along with other conventional data, e.g., NCEP Automated Data Processing (ADP) data) offsets the downgrade analysis from the absence of DWL observations in an analysis cycle and outperforms assimilation of a single type of data (either TDR or DWL) and leads to improved forecasts of hurricane track, intensity, and structure. Overall, assimilation of DWL observations has been beneficial for analysis and forecasts in most cases. The outcomes from this study demonstrate the great potential of including DWL wind profiles in the operational HWRF system for hurricane forecast improvement. 
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  4. This study examines the impacts of assimilating ocean-surface winds derived from the NASA Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS) on improving the short-range numerical simulations and forecasts of landfalling hurricanes using the NCEP operational Hurricane Weather Research and Forecasting (HWRF) model. A series of data assimilation experiments are performed using HWRF and a Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI)-based hybrid 3-dimensional ensemble-variational (3DEnVar) data assimilation system. The influence of CYGNSS data on hurricane forecasts is compared with that of Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) wind products that have already been assimilated into the HWRF forecast system in a series of assimilation experiments. The effects of different versions of CYGNSS data (V2.1 vs. V3.0) on hurricane forecasts are evaluated. The results indicate that CYGNSS ocean-surface wind can lead to improved numerical simulations and forecasts of hurricane track and intensity, asymmetric wind structure, and precipitation. The impacts of CYGNSS on hurricane forecasts are comparable and complementary to the operational use of ASCAT satellite data products. The dependence of the relative impacts of different versions of CYGNSS data on optimal thinning distances is evident. 
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  5. Tian, Li (Ed.)
    The accuracy of transmission tower-line system simulation is highly impacted by the transmission line model and its coupling with the tower. Owing to the high geometry nonlinearity of the transmission line and the complexity of the wind loading, such analysis is often conducted in the commercial software. In most commercial software packages, nonlinear truss element is used for cable modeling, whereas the initial strain condition of the nonlinear truss under gravity loading is not directly available. Elastic catenary element establishes an analytical formulation for cable structure under distributed loading; however, the nonlinear iteration to reach convergence can be computational expensive. To derive an optimal transmission tower-line model solution with high fidelity and computational efficiency, an open-source three-dimensional model is developed. Nonlinear truss element and elastic catenary element are considered in the model development. The results of the study imply that both elements are suitable for the transmission line model; nevertheless, the initial strain in nonlinear truss element largely impacts the model accuracy and should be calibrated from the elastic catenary model. To cross-validate the developed models on the coupled transmission tower and line, a one-span eight-line system is modeled with different elements and compared with several state-of-the-art commercial packages. The results indicate that the displacement time-history root-mean-square error (RMSE) of the open-source transmission tower-line model is less than 1 % and with a 66 % computational time reduction compared with the ANSYS model. The application of the open-source package transmission tower-line model on extreme wind speed considering the aerodynamic damping is further implemented. 
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