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    We present a new moment-based energy-integrated neutrino transport code for neutron star merger simulations in general relativity. In the merger context, ours is the first code to include Doppler effects at all orders in υ/c, retaining all non-linear neutrino–matter coupling terms. The code is validated with a stringent series of tests. We show that the inclusion of full neutrino–matter coupling terms is necessary to correctly capture the trapping of neutrinos in relativistically moving media, such as in differentially rotating merger remnants. We perform preliminary simulations proving the robustness of the scheme in simulating ab-initio mergers to black hole collapse and long-term neutron star remnants up to ${\sim }70\,$ ms. The latter is the longest dynamical space-time, 3D, general relativistic simulations with full neutrino transport to date. We compare results obtained at different resolutions and using two different closures for the moment scheme. We do not find evidences of significant out-of-thermodynamic equilibrium effects, such as bulk viscosity, on the post-merger dynamics or gravitational wave emission. Neutrino luminosities and average energies are in good agreement with theory expectations and previous simulations by other groups using similar schemes. We compare dynamical and early wind ejecta properties obtained with M1 and with our older neutrino treatment. We find that the M1 results have systematically larger proton fractions. However, the differences in the nucleosynthesis yields are modest. This work sets the basis for future detailed studies spanning a wider set of neutrino reactions, binaries, and equations of state.

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  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2024
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2024
  4. Abstract The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) has the potential to reveal wonders about the fundamental theory of nature at play in the extreme gravity regime, where the gravitational interaction is both strong and dynamical. In this white paper, the Fundamental Physics Working Group of the LISA Consortium summarizes the current topics in fundamental physics where LISA observations of gravitational waves can be expected to provide key input. We provide the briefest of reviews to then delineate avenues for future research directions and to discuss connections between this working group, other working groups and the consortium work package teams. These connections must be developed for LISA to live up to its science potential in these areas. 
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  5. Abstract Gravitational waves emitted by black hole binary inspiral and mergers enable unprecedented strong-field tests of gravity, requiring accurate theoretical modeling of the expected signals in extensions of general relativity. In this paper we model the gravitational wave emission of inspiralling binaries in scalar Gauss–Bonnet gravity theories. Going beyond the weak-coupling approximation, we derive the gravitational waveform to relative first post-Newtonian order beyond the quadrupole approximation and calculate new contributions from nonlinear curvature terms. We also compute the scalar waveform to relative 0.5PN order beyond the leading −0.5PN order terms. We quantify the effect of these terms and provide ready-to-implement gravitational wave and scalar waveforms as well as the Fourier domain phase for quasi-circular binaries. We also perform a parameter space study, which indicates that the values of black hole scalar charges play a crucial role in the detectability of deviation from general relativity. We also compare the scalar waveforms to numerical relativity simulations to assess the impact of the relativistic corrections to the scalar radiation. Our results provide important foundations for future precision tests of gravity. 
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  6. ABSTRACT In this work, we estimate how much bulk viscosity driven by Urca processes is likely to affect the gravitational wave signal of a neutron star coalescence. In the late inspiral, we show that bulk viscosity affects the binding energy at fourth post-Newtonian order. Even though this effect is enhanced by the square of the gravitational compactness, the coefficient of bulk viscosity is likely too small to lead to observable effects in the waveform during the late inspiral, when only considering the orbital motion itself. In the post-merger, however, the characteristic time-scales and spatial scales are different, potentially leading to the opposite conclusion. We post-process data from a state-of-the-art equal-mass binary neutron star merger simulation to estimate the effects of bulk viscosity (which was not included in the simulation itself). In that scenario, we find that bulk viscosity can reach high values in regions of the merger. We compute several estimates of how much it might directly affect the global dynamics of the considered merger scenario, and find that it could become significant. Even larger effects could arise in different merger scenarios or in simulations that include non-linear effects. This assessment is reinforced by a quantitative comparison with relativistic heavy-ion collisions where such effects have been explored extensively. 
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