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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2024
  2. Abstract We obtain Fredholm type formulas for partial degenerations of theta functions on (irreducible) nodal curves of arbitrary genus, with emphasis on nodal curves of genus one. An application is the study of ‘many-soliton’ solutions on an elliptic (cnoidal) background standing wave for the Korteweg–de Vries (KdV) equation starting from a formula that is reminiscent of the classical Kay–Moses formula for N -solitons. In particular, we represent such a solution as a sum of the following two terms: a ‘shifted’ elliptic (cnoidal) background wave and a Kay–Moses type determinant containing Jacobi theta functions for the solitonic content, which can be viewed as a collection of solitary disturbances on the cnoidal background. The expressions for the travelling (group) speed of these solitary disturbances, as well as for the interaction kernel describing the scattering of pairs of such solitary disturbances, are obtained explicitly in terms of Jacobi theta functions. We also show that genus N  + 1 finite gap solutions with random initial phases converge in probability to the deterministic cnoidal wave solution as N bands degenerate to a nodal curve of genus one. Finally, we derive the nonlinear dispersion relations and the equation of states for the KdV soliton gas on the residual elliptic background. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 30, 2024
  3. Abstract We prove existence, uniqueness and non-negativity of solutions of certain integral equations describing the density of states u ( z ) in the spectral theory of soliton gases for the one dimensional integrable focusing nonlinear Schrödinger equation (fNLS) and for the Korteweg–de Vries (KdV) equation. Our proofs are based on ideas and methods of potential theory. In particular, we show that the minimising (positive) measure for a certain energy functional is absolutely continuous and its density u ( z ) ⩾ 0 solves the required integral equation. In a similar fashion we show that v ( z ), the temporal analog of u ( z ), is the difference of densities of two absolutely continuous measures. Together, the integral equations for u , v represent nonlinear dispersion relation for the fNLS soliton gas. We also discuss smoothness and other properties of the obtained solutions. Finally, we obtain exact solutions of the above integral equations in the case of a KdV condensate and a bound state fNLS condensate. Our results is a step towards a mathematical foundation for the spectral theory of soliton and breather gases, which appeared in work of El and Tovbis (2020 Phys. Rev. E 101 052207). It is expected that the presented ideas and methods will be useful for studying similar classes of integral equation describing, for example, breather gases for the fNLS, as well as soliton gases of various integrable systems. 
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    It has been shown analytically that Peregrine solitons emerge locally from a universal mechanism in the so-called semiclassical limit of the one-dimensional focusing nonlinear Schrödinger equation. Experimentally, this limit corresponds to the strongly nonlinear regime where the dispersion is much weaker than nonlinearity at initial time. We review here evidences of this phenomenon obtained on different experimental platforms. In particular, the spontaneous emergence of coherent structures exhibiting locally the Peregrine soliton behavior has been demonstrated in optical fiber experiments involving either single pulse or partially coherent waves. We also review theoretical and numerical results showing the link between this phenomenon and the emergence of heavy-tailed statistics (rogue waves). 
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