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  1. Kawsar, Fahim (Ed.)
    This article proposes a unified threat landscape for Participatory Crowd Sensing (P-CS) systems. Specifically, it focuses on attacks from organized malicious actors that may use the knowledge of P-CS platform's operations and exploit algorithmic weaknesses in AI-based methods of event trust, user reputation, decision-making or recommendation models deployed to preserve information integrity in P-CS. We emphasize on intent driven malicious behaviors by advanced adversaries and how attacks are crafted to achieve those attack impacts. Three directions of the threat model are introduced, such as attack goals, types, and strategies. We expand on how various strategies are linked with different attack types and goals, underscoring formal definition, their relevance and impact on the P-CS platform. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024
  2. Smart water metering (SWM) infrastructure collects real-time water usage data that is useful for automated billing, leak detection, and forecasting of peak periods. Cyber/physical attacks can lead to data falsification on water usage data. This paper proposes a learning approach that converts smart water meter data into a Pythagorean mean-based invariant that is highly stable under normal conditions but deviates under attacks. We show how adversaries can launch deductive or camouflage attacks in the SWM infrastructure to gain benefits and impact the water distribution utility. Then, we apply a two-tier approach of stateless and stateful detection, reducing false alarms without significantly sacrificing the attack detection rate. We validate our approach using real-world water usage data of 92 households in Alicante, Spain for varying attack scales and strengths and prove that our method limits the impact of undetected attacks and expected time between consecutive false alarms. Our results show that even for low-strength, low-scale deductive attacks, the model limits the impact of an undetected attack to only 0.2199375 pounds and for high-strength, low-scale camouflage attack, the impact of an undetected attack was limited to 1.434375 pounds. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
  3. Modern smart cities need smart transportation solutions to quickly detect various traffic emergencies and incidents in the city to avoid cascading traffic disruptions. To materialize this, roadside units and ambient transportation sensors are being deployed to collect speed data that enables the monitoring of traffic conditions on each road segment. In this paper, we first propose a scalable data-driven anomaly-based traffic incident detection framework for a city-scale smart transportation system. Specifically, we propose an incremental region growing approximation algorithm for optimal Spatio-temporal clustering of road segments and their data; such that road segments are strategically divided into highly correlated clusters. The highly correlated clusters enable identifying a Pythagorean Mean-based invariant as an anomaly detection metric that is highly stable under no incidents but shows a deviation in the presence of incidents. We learn the bounds of the invariants in a robust manner such that anomaly detection can generalize to unseen events, even when learning from real noisy data. Second, using cluster-level detection, we propose a folded Gaussian classifier to pinpoint the particular segment in a cluster where the incident happened in an automated manner. We perform extensive experimental validation using mobility data collected from four cities in Tennessee, compare with the state-of-the-art ML methods, to prove that our method can detect incidents within each cluster in real-time and outperforms known ML methods. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2024
  5. Falsified data from compromised Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) in a smart grid induce Energy Management Systems (EMS) to have an inaccurate estimation of the state of the grid, disrupting various operations of the power grid. Moreover, the PMUs deployed at the distribution layer of a smart grid show dynamic fluctuations in their data streams, which make it extremely challenging to design effective learning frameworks for anomaly based attack detection. In this paper, we propose a noise resilient learning framework for anomaly based attack detection specifically for distribution layer PMU infrastructure, that show real time indicators of data falsifications attacks while offsetting the effect of false alarms caused by the noise. Specifically, we propose a feature extraction framework that uses some Pythagorean Means of the active power from a cluster of PMUs, reducing multi-dimensional nature of the PMU data streams via quick big data summarization. We also propose a robust and noise resilient methodology for learning thresholds based on generalized robust estimation theory of our invariant feature. We experimentally validate our approach and demonstrate improved reliability performance using two completely different datasets collected from real distribution level PMU infrastructures. 
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