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    We present a suite of the first 3D GRMHD collapsar simulations, which extend from the self-consistent jet launching by an accreting Kerr black hole (BH) to the breakout from the star. We identify three types of outflows, depending on the angular momentum, l, of the collapsing material and the magnetic field, B, on the BH horizon: (i) subrelativistic outflow (low l and high B), (ii) stationary accretion shock instability (SASI; high l and low B), (iii) relativistic jets (high l and high B). In the absence of jets, free-fall of the stellar envelope provides a good estimate for the BH accretion rate. Jets can substantially suppress the accretion rate, and their duration can be limited by the magnetization profile in the star. We find that progenitors with large (steep) inner density power-law indices (≳ 2), face extreme challenges as gamma-ray burst (GRB) progenitors due to excessive luminosity, global time evolution in the light curve throughout the burst and short breakout times, inconsistent with observations. Our results suggest that the wide variety of observed explosion appearances (supernova/supernova + GRB/low-luminosity GRBs) and the characteristics of the emitting relativistic outflows (luminosity and duration) can be naturally explained by the differences in the progenitor structure.more »Our simulations reveal several important jet features: (i) strong magnetic dissipation inside the star, resulting in weakly magnetized jets by breakout that may have significant photospheric emission and (ii) spontaneous emergence of tilted accretion disc-jet flows, even in the absence of any tilt in the progenitor.

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  2. Abstract X-shaped radio galaxies (XRGs) produce misaligned X-shaped jet pairs and make up ≲10% of radio galaxies. XRGs are thought to emerge in galaxies featuring a binary supermassive black hole (SMBH), SMBH merger, or large-scale ambient medium asymmetry. We demonstrate that XRG morphology can naturally form without such special, preexisting conditions. Our 3D general-relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) simulation for the first time follows magnetized rotating gas from outside the SMBH sphere of influence of radius R B to the SMBH of gravitational radius R g at the largest scale separation, R B / R g = 10 3 , to date. Initially, our axisymmetric system of constant-density hot gas contains a weak vertical magnetic field and rotates in the equatorial plane of a rapidly spinning SMBH. We seed the gas with small-scale 2% level pressure perturbations. Infalling gas forms an accretion disk, and the SMBH launches relativistically magnetized collimated jets reaching well outside R B . Under the pressure of the infalling gas, the jets intermittently turn on and off, erratically wobble, and inflate pairs of cavities in different directions, resembling an X-shaped jet morphology. Synthetic X-ray images reveal multiple pairs of jet-powered shocks and cavities. Large-scale magnetic flux accumulates onmore »the SMBH, becomes dynamically important, and leads to a magnetically arrested disk state. The SMBH accretes at 2% of the Bondi rate ( M ̇ ≃ 2.4 × 10 − 3 M ⊙ yr − 1 for M87*) and launches twin jets at η = 150% efficiency. These jets are powerful enough ( P jets ≃ 2 × 10 44 erg s −1 ) to escape along the SMBH spin axis and end the short-lived intermittent jet state, whose transient nature can account for the rarity of XRGs.« less
  3. Abstract Long-duration γ -ray bursts (GRBs) accompany the collapse of massive stars and carry information about the central engine. However, no 3D models have been able to follow these jets from their birth via black hole (BH) to the photosphere. We present the first such 3D general-relativity magnetohydrodynamic simulations, which span over six orders of magnitude in space and time. The collapsing stellar envelope forms an accretion disk, which drags inwardly the magnetic flux that accumulates around the BH, becomes dynamically important, and launches bipolar jets. The jets reach the photosphere at ∼10 12 cm with an opening angle θ j ∼ 6° and a Lorentz factor Γ j ≲ 30, unbinding ≳90% of the star. We find that (i) the disk–jet system spontaneously develops misalignment relative to the BH rotational axis. As a result, the jet wobbles with an angle θ t ∼ 12°, which can naturally explain quiescent times in GRB lightcurves. The effective opening angle for detection θ j + θ t suggests that the intrinsic GRB rate is lower by an order of magnitude than standard estimates. This suggests that successful GRBs are rarer than currently thought and emerge in only ∼0.1% of supernovae Ib/c, implyingmore »that jets are either not launched or choked inside most supernova Ib/c progenitors. (ii) The magnetic energy in the jet decreases due to mixing with the star, resulting in jets with a hybrid composition of magnetic and thermal components at the photosphere, where ∼10% of the gas maintains magnetization σ ≳ 0.1. This indicates that both a photospheric component and reconnection may play a role in the prompt emission.« less
  4. Abstract Short γ -ray burst (sGRB) jets form in the aftermath of a neutron star merger, drill through disk winds and dynamical ejecta, and extend over four to five orders of magnitude in distance before breaking out of the ejecta. We present the first 3D general-relativistic magnetohydrodynamic sGRB simulations to span this enormous scale separation. They feature three possible outcomes: jet+cocoon, cocoon, and neither. Typical sGRB jets break out of the dynamical ejecta if (i) the bound ejecta’s isotropic equivalent mass along the pole at the time of the BH formation is ≲10 −4 M ⊙ , setting a limit on the delay time between the merger and BH formation, otherwise, the jets perish inside the ejecta and leave the jet-inflated cocoon to power a low-luminosity sGRB; (ii) the postmerger remnant disk contains a strong large-scale vertical magnetic field, ≳10 15 G; and (iii) if the jets are weak (≲10 50 erg), the ejecta’s isotropic equivalent mass along the pole must be small (≲10 −2 M ⊙ ). Generally, the jet structure is shaped by the early interaction with disk winds rather than the dynamical ejecta. As long as our jets break out of the ejecta, they retain a significantmore »magnetization (≲1), suggesting that magnetic reconnection is a fundamental property of sGRB emission. The angular structure of the outflow isotropic equivalent energy after breakout consistently features a flat core followed by a steep power-law distribution (slope ≳3), similar to hydrodynamic jets. In the cocoon-only outcome, the dynamical ejecta broadens the outflow angular distribution and flattens it (slope ∼1.5).« less