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  1. Abstract

    A remarkable distinction between boron and carbon hydrides lies in their extremely different bonding patterns and chemical reactivity, resulting in diverse areas of application. Particularly, carbon, characterized by classical two‐center – two‐electron bonds, gives rise to organic chemistry. In contrast, boron forms numerous exotic and non‐intuitive compounds collectively called non‐classical structures. It is reasonable to anticipate that other elements of Group 13 exhibit their own unusual bonding patterns; however, our knowledge of the hydride chemistry for other elements in Group 13 is much more limited, especially for the heaviest stable element, thallium. In this work, we performed a conformational analysis of Tl2Hxand Tl3Hy(x=0–6, y=0–5) series via Coalescence Kick global minimum search algorithm, DFT, andab initioquantum chemistry methods; we investigated the bonding pattern using the AdNDP algorithm, thermodynamic stability, and stability toward electron detachment. All found global minimum structures are classified as non‐classical structures featuring at least one multi‐center bond.

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  2. The escalating global energy predicament implores for a revolutionary resolution—one that converts sunlight into electricity—holding the key to supreme conversion efficiency. This comprehensive review embarks on the exploration of the principle of generating multiple excitons per absorbed photon, a captivating concept that possesses the potential to redefine the fundamental confines of conversion efficiency, albeit its application remains limited in photovoltaic devices. At the nucleus of this phenomenon are two principal processes: multiple exciton generation (MEG) within quantum-confined environments, and singlet fission (SF) inside molecular crystals. The process of SF, characterized by the cleavage of a single photogenerated singlet exciton into two triplet excitons, holds promise to potentially amplify photon-to-electron conversion efficiency twofold, thereby laying the groundwork to challenge the detailed balance limit of solar cell efficiency. Our discourse primarily dissects the complex nature of SF in crystalline organic semiconductors, laying special emphasis on the anisotropic behavior of SF and the diffusion of the subsequent triplet excitons in single-crystalline polyacene organic semiconductors. We initiate this journey of discovery by elucidating the principles of MEG and SF, tracing their historical genesis, and scrutinizing the anisotropy of SF and the impact of quantum decoherence within the purview of functional mode electron transfer theory. We present an overview of prominent techniques deployed in investigating anisotropic SF in organic semiconductors, including femtosecond transient absorption microscopy and imaging as well as stimulated Raman scattering microscopies, and highlight recent breakthroughs linked with the anisotropic dimensions of Davydov splitting, Herzberg–Teller effects, SF, and triplet transport operations in single-crystalline polyacenes. Through this comprehensive analysis, our objective is to interweave the fundamental principles of anisotropic SF and triplet transport with the current frontiers of scientific discovery, providing inspiration and facilitating future ventures to harness the anisotropic attributes of organic semiconductor crystals in the design of pioneering photovoltaic and photonic devices.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2024
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2024
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 22, 2024
  5. Abstract Understanding the chemical and physical properties of particles is an important scientific, engineering, and medical issue that is crucial to air quality, human health, and environmental chemistry. Of special interest are aerosol particles floating in the air for both indoor virus transmission and outdoor atmospheric chemistry. The growth of bio- and organic-aerosol particles in the air is intimately correlated with chemical structures and their reactions in the gas phase at aerosol particle surfaces and in-particle phases. However, direct measurements of chemical structures at aerosol particle surfaces in the air are lacking. Here we demonstrate in situ surface-specific vibrational sum frequency scattering (VSFS) to directly identify chemical structures of molecules at aerosol particle surfaces. Furthermore, our setup allows us to simultaneously probe hyper-Raman scattering (HRS) spectra in the particle phase. We examined polarized VSFS spectra of propionic acid at aerosol particle surfaces and in particle bulk. More importantly, the surface adsorption free energy of propionic acid onto aerosol particles was found to be less negative than that at the air/water interface. These results challenge the long-standing hypothesis that molecular behaviors at the air/water interface are the same as those at aerosol particle surfaces. Our approach opens a new avenue in revealing surface compositions and chemical aging in the formation of secondary organic aerosols in the atmosphere as well as chemical analysis of indoor and outdoor viral aerosol particles. 
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