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  1. Abstract

    Despite major advances in HIV testing, ultrasensitive detection of early infection remains challenging, especially for the viral capsid protein p24, which is an early virological biomarker of HIV-1 infection. Here, To improve p24 detection in patients missed by immunological tests that dominate the diagnostics market, we show a click chemistry amplified nanopore (CAN) assay for ultrasensitive quantitative detection. This strategy achieves a 20.8 fM (0.5 pg/ml) limit of detection for HIV-1 p24 antigen in human serum, demonstrating 20~100-fold higher analytical sensitivity than nanocluster-based immunoassays and clinically used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Clinical validation of the CAN assay in a pilot cohort shows p24 quantification at ultra-low concentration range and correlation with CD4 count and viral load. We believe that this strategy can improve the utility of p24 antigen in detecting early infection and monitoring HIV progression and treatment efficacy, and also can be readily modified to detect other infectious diseases.

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  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 7, 2025
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2024
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 14, 2024
  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 12, 2024
  6. DNAs have been used as probes for nanopore sensing of noncharged biomacromolecules due to its negative phosphate backbone. Inspired by this, we explored the potential of diblock synthetic polyelectrolytes as more flexible and inexpensive nanopore sensing probes by investigating translocation behaviors of PEO-b-PSS and PEO-b-PVBTMA through commonly used alpha-hemolysin ( α -HL) and Mycobacterium smegmatis porin A (MspA) nanopores. Translocation recordings in different configurations of pore orientation and testing voltage indicated efficient PEO-b-PSS translocations through α -HL and PEO-b-PVBTMA translocations through MspA. This work provides insight into synthetic polyelectrolyte-based probes to expand probe selection and flexibility for nanopore sensing. 
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