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  1. Abstract

    The Asian summer monsoon (ASM) is teleconnected to the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), but this relationship is nonstationary and has shifted significantly in recent decades. Characterizing the drivers of such shifts is crucial for improving ASM prediction and extreme event preparedness. Paleoclimate records indicate a link between ASM strength and solar activity on multidecadal‐to‐centennial timescales, but 20th‐century data are too short to test mechanisms. Here we evaluate how solar irradiance influences the ASM‐ENSO relationship using last‐millennium paleoclimate data assimilation reconstructions and model simulations. We find that high solar irradiance weakens the ENSO‐East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) correlation, but strengthens the ENSO‐South Asian summer monsoon (SASM) correlation. Solar irradiance likely influences the strength of the ENSO‐EASM and ENSO‐SASM teleconnections via changes in the Western Pacific Subtropical High and the amplitude of ENSO events, respectively. We suggest a need for considering solar activity in decadal ASM rainfall predictions under global warming scenarios.

     
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  2. Abstract

    Observations show that the teleconnection between the El Niño‐Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Asian summer monsoon (ASM) is non‐stationary. However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood due to inadequate availability of reliable, long‐term observations. This study uses two state‐of‐the‐art data assimilation‐based reconstructions of last millennium climate to examine changes in the ENSO–ASM teleconnection; we investigate how modes of (multi‐)decadal climate variability (namely, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, PDO, and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation, AMO) modulate the ENSO–ASM relationship. Our analyses reveal that the PDO exerts a more pronounced impact on ASM variability than the AMO. By comparing different linear regression models, we find that including the PDO in addition to ENSO cycles can improve prediction of the ASM, especially for the Indian summer monsoon. In particular, dry (wet) anomalies caused by El Niño (La Niña) over India become enhanced during the positive (negative) PDO phases due to a compounding effect. However, composite differences in the ENSO–ASM relationship between positive and negative phases of the PDO and AMO are not statistically significant. A significant influence of the PDO/AMO on the ENSO–ASM relationship occurred only over a limited period within the last millennium. By leveraging the long‐term paleoclimate reconstructions, we document and interrogate the non‐stationary nature of the PDO and AMO in modulating the ENSO–ASM relationship.

     
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  3. Abstract

    Large uncertainties exist in climate model projections of the Asian summer monsoon (ASM). The El Niño‐Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is an important modulator of the ASM, but the ENSO‐ASM teleconnection is not stationary. Furthermore, teleconnections between ENSO and the East Asian versus South Asian subcomponents of the ASM exhibit distinct characteristics. Therefore, understanding the variability of the ENSO‐ASM teleconnection is critical for anticipating future variations in ASM intensity. To this end, we here use paleoclimate records to extend temporal coverage beyond the instrumental era by millennia. Recently, data assimilation techniques have been applied for the last millennium, which facilitates physically consistent, globally gridded climate reconstructions informed by paleoclimate observations. We use these novel data assimilation products to investigate variations in the ENSO‐ASM relationship over the last 1,000 years. We find that correlations between ENSO and ASM indices are mostly negative in the last millennium, suggesting that strong ASM years are often associated with La Niña events. During periods of weak correlations between ENSO and the East Asian summer monsoon, we observe an El Niño‐like sea surface temperature (SST) pattern in the Pacific. Additionally, SST patterns associated with periods of weak correlations between ENSO and South Asian summer monsoon rainfall are not consistent among data assimilation products. This underscores the importance of developing more precipitation‐sensitive paleoclimate proxies in the Indian subcontinental realm over the last millennium. Our study serves as a baseline for future appraisals of paleoclimate assimilation products and an example of informing our understanding of decadal‐scale ENSO‐ASM teleconnection variability using paleoclimate data sets.

     
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