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  1. Cutting-edge machine learning techniques often require millions of labeled data objects to train a robust model. Because relying on humans to supply such a huge number of labels is rarely practical, automated methods for label generation are needed. Unfortunately, critical challenges in auto-labeling remain unsolved, including the following research questions: (1) which objects to ask humans to label, (2) how to automatically propagate labels to other objects, and (3) when to stop labeling. These three questions are not only each challenging in their own right, but they also correspond to tightly interdependent problems. Yet existing techniques provide at best isolated solutions to a subset of these challenges. In this work, we propose the first approach, called LANCET, that successfully addresses all three challenges in an integrated framework. LANCET is based on a theoretical foundation characterizing the properties that the labeled dataset must satisfy to train an effective prediction model, namely the Covariate-shift and the Continuity conditions. First, guided by the Covariate-shift condition, LANCET maps raw input data into a semantic feature space, where an unlabeled object is expected to share the same label with its near-by labeled neighbor. Next, guided by the Continuity condition, LANCET selects objects for labeling, aimingmore »to ensure that unlabeled objects always have some sufficiently close labeled neighbors. These two strategies jointly maximize the accuracy of the automatically produced labels and the prediction accuracy of the machine learning models trained on these labels. Lastly, LANCET uses a distribution matching network to verify whether both the Covariate-shift and Continuity conditions hold, in which case it would be safe to terminate the labeling process. Our experiments on diverse public data sets demonstrate that LANCET consistently outperforms the state-of-the-art methods from Snuba to GOGGLES and other baselines by a large margin - up to 30 percentage points increase in accuracy.« less