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  1. Abstract

    Proteins are direct products of the genome and metabolites are functional products of interactions between the host and other factors such as environment, disease state, clinical information, etc. Omics data, including proteins and metabolites, are useful in characterizing biological processes underlying COVID-19 along with patient data and clinical information, yet few methods are available to effectively analyze such diverse and unstructured data. Using an integrated approach that combines proteomics and metabolomics data, we investigated the changes in metabolites and proteins in relation to patient characteristics (e.g., age, gender, and health outcome) and clinical information (e.g., metabolic panel and complete blood count test results). We found significant enrichment of biological indicators of lung, liver, and gastrointestinal dysfunction associated with disease severity using publicly available metabolite and protein profiles. Our analyses specifically identified enriched proteins that play a critical role in responses to injury or infection within these anatomical sites, but may contribute to excessive systemic inflammation within the context of COVID-19. Furthermore, we have used this information in conjunction with machine learning algorithms to predict the health status of patients presenting symptoms of COVID-19. This work provides a roadmap for understanding the biochemical pathways and molecular mechanisms that drive diseasemore »severity, progression, and treatment of COVID-19.

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  2. Abstract

    SARS-CoV-2 (CoV) is the etiological agent of the COVID-19 pandemic and evolves to evade both host immune systems and intervention strategies. We divided the CoV genome into 29 constituent regions and applied novel analytical approaches to identify associations between CoV genomic features and epidemiological metadata. Our results show that nonstructural protein 3 (nsp3) and Spike protein (S) have the highest variation and greatest correlation with the viral whole-genome variation. S protein variation is correlated with nsp3, nsp6, and 3′-to-5′ exonuclease variation. Country of origin and time since the start of the pandemic were the most influential metadata associated with genomic variation, while host sex and age were the least influential. We define a novel statistic—coherence—and show its utility in identifying geographic regions (populations) with unusually high (many new variants) or low (isolated) viral phylogenetic diversity. Interestingly, at both global and regional scales, we identify geographic locations with high coherence neighboring regions of low coherence; this emphasizes the utility of this metric to inform public health measures for disease spread. Our results provide a direction to prioritize genes associated with outcome predictors (e.g., health, therapeutic, and vaccine outcomes) and to improve DNA tests for predicting disease status.

  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 2, 2023
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2023
  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2023
  6. Coelho, Luis Pedro (Ed.)
    It is challenging to associate features such as human health outcomes, diet, environmental conditions, or other metadata to microbial community measurements, due in part to their quantitative properties. Microbiome multi-omics are typically noisy, sparse (zero-inflated), high-dimensional, extremely non-normal, and often in the form of count or compositional measurements. Here we introduce an optimized combination of novel and established methodology to assess multivariable association of microbial community features with complex metadata in population-scale observational studies. Our approach, MaAsLin 2 (Microbiome Multivariable Associations with Linear Models), uses generalized linear and mixed models to accommodate a wide variety of modern epidemiological studies, including cross-sectional and longitudinal designs, as well as a variety of data types (e.g., counts and relative abundances) with or without covariates and repeated measurements. To construct this method, we conducted a large-scale evaluation of a broad range of scenarios under which straightforward identification of meta-omics associations can be challenging. These simulation studies reveal that MaAsLin 2’s linear model preserves statistical power in the presence of repeated measures and multiple covariates, while accounting for the nuances of meta-omics features and controlling false discovery. We also applied MaAsLin 2 to a microbial multi-omics dataset from the Integrative Human Microbiome (HMP2) project which,more »in addition to reproducing established results, revealed a unique, integrated landscape of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) across multiple time points and omics profiles.« less
  7. Abstract Objective In response to COVID-19, the informatics community united to aggregate as much clinical data as possible to characterize this new disease and reduce its impact through collaborative analytics. The National COVID Cohort Collaborative (N3C) is now the largest publicly available HIPAA limited dataset in US history with over 6.4 million patients and is a testament to a partnership of over 100 organizations. Materials and Methods We developed a pipeline for ingesting, harmonizing, and centralizing data from 56 contributing data partners using 4 federated Common Data Models. N3C data quality (DQ) review involves both automated and manual procedures. In the process, several DQ heuristics were discovered in our centralized context, both within the pipeline and during downstream project-based analysis. Feedback to the sites led to many local and centralized DQ improvements. Results Beyond well-recognized DQ findings, we discovered 15 heuristics relating to source Common Data Model conformance, demographics, COVID tests, conditions, encounters, measurements, observations, coding completeness, and fitness for use. Of 56 sites, 37 sites (66%) demonstrated issues through these heuristics. These 37 sites demonstrated improvement after receiving feedback. Discussion We encountered site-to-site differences in DQ which would have been challenging to discover using federated checks alone. We havemore »demonstrated that centralized DQ benchmarking reveals unique opportunities for DQ improvement that will support improved research analytics locally and in aggregate. Conclusion By combining rapid, continual assessment of DQ with a large volume of multisite data, it is possible to support more nuanced scientific questions with the scale and rigor that they require.« less
  8. Abstract In response to the COVID-19 outbreak, scientists and medical researchers are capturing a wide range of host responses, symptoms and lingering postrecovery problems within the human population. These variable clinical manifestations suggest differences in influential factors, such as innate and adaptive host immunity, existing or underlying health conditions, comorbidities, genetics and other factors—compounding the complexity of COVID-19 pathobiology and potential biomarkers associated with the disease, as they become available. The heterogeneous data pose challenges for efficient extrapolation of information into clinical applications. We have curated 145 COVID-19 biomarkers by developing a novel cross-cutting disease biomarker data model that allows integration and evaluation of biomarkers in patients with comorbidities. Most biomarkers are related to the immune (SAA, TNF-∝ and IP-10) or coagulation (D-dimer, antithrombin and VWF) cascades, suggesting complex vascular pathobiology of the disease. Furthermore, we observe commonality with established cancer biomarkers (ACE2, IL-6, IL-4 and IL-2) as well as biomarkers for metabolic syndrome and diabetes (CRP, NLR and LDL). We explore these trends as we put forth a COVID-19 biomarker resource (https://data.oncomx.org/covid19) that will help researchers and diagnosticians alike.
  9. Wren, Jonathan (Ed.)
    Abstract Motivation The discovery of biologically interpretable and clinically actionable communities in heterogeneous omics data is a necessary first step toward deriving mechanistic insights into complex biological phenomena. Here, we present a novel clustering approach, omeClust, for community detection in omics profiles by simultaneously incorporating similarities among measurements and the overall complex structure of the data. Results We show that omeClust outperforms published methods in inferring the true community structure as measured by both sensitivity and misclassification rate on simulated datasets. We further validated omeClust in diverse, multiple omics datasets, revealing new communities and functionally related groups in microbial strains, cell line gene expression patterns and fetal genomic variation. We also derived enrichment scores attributable to putatively meaningful biological factors in these datasets that can serve as hypothesis generators facilitating new sets of testable hypotheses. Availability and implementation omeClust is open-source software, and the implementation is available online at http://github.com/omicsEye/omeClust. Supplementary information Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.