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  1. Abstract This paper addresses the approximation of fractional harmonic maps. Besides a unit-length constraint, one has to tackle the difficulty of nonlocality. We establish weak compactness results for critical points of the fractional Dirichlet energy on unit-length vector fields. We devise and analyze numerical methods for the approximation of various partial differential equations related to fractional harmonic maps. The compactness results imply the convergence of numerical approximations. Numerical examples on spin chain dynamics and point defects are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 16, 2023
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2023
  3. Trélat, E. ; Zuazua, E. (Ed.)
    This chapter provides a brief review of recent developments on two nonlocal operators: fractional Laplacian and fractional time derivative. We start by accounting for several applications of these operators in imaging science, geophysics, harmonic maps, and deep (machine) learning. Various notions of solutions to linear fractional elliptic equations are provided and numerical schemes for fractional Laplacian and fractional time derivative are discussed. Special emphasis is given to exterior optimal control problems with a linear elliptic equation as constraints. In addition, optimal control problems with interior control and state constraints are considered. We also provide a discussion on fractional deep neural networks, which is shown to be a minimization problem with fractional in time ordinary differential equation as constraint. The paper concludes with a discussion on several open problems.
  4. Abstract Fractional PDEs have recently found several geophysics and imaging science applications due to their nonlocal nature and their flexibility in capturing sharp transitions across interfaces.However, this nonlocality makes it challenging to design efficient solvers for such problems.In this paper, we introduce a spectral method based on an ultraspherical polynomial discretization of the Caffarelli–Silvestre extension to solve such PDEs on rectangular and disk domains.We solve the discretized problem using tensor equation solvers and thus can solve higher-dimensional PDEs.In addition, we introduce both serial and parallel domain decomposition solvers.We demonstrate the numerical performance of our methods on a 3D fractional elliptic PDE on a cube as well as an application to optimization problems with fractional PDE constraints.
  5. For any given neural network architecture a permutation of weights and biases results in the same functional network. This implies that optimization algorithms used to 'train' or 'learn' the network are faced with a very large number (in the millions even for small networks) of equivalent optimal solutions in the parameter space. To the best of our knowledge, this observation is absent in the literature. In order to narrow down the parameter search space, a novel technique is introduced in order to fix the bias vector configurations to be monotonically increasing. This is achieved by augmenting a typical learning problem with inequality constraints on the bias vectors in each layer. A Moreau-Yosida regularization based algorithm is proposed to handle these inequality constraints and a theoretical convergence of this algorithm is established. Applications of the proposed approach to standard trigonometric functions and more challenging stiff ordinary differential equations arising in chemically reacting flows clearly illustrate the benefits of the proposed approach. Further application of the approach on the MNIST dataset within TensorFlow, illustrate that the presented approach can be incorporated in any of the existing machine learning libraries.

  6. We consider an optimal control problem governed by parameterized stationary Maxwell's system with the Gauss's law. The parameters enter through dielectric, magnetic permeability, and charge density. Moreover, the parameter set is assumed to be compact. We discretize the electric field by a finite element method and use variational discretization concept for the control. We present a reduced basis method for the optimal control problem and establish the uniform convergence of the reduced order solutions to that of the original full-dimensional problem provided that the snapshot parameter sample is dense in the parameter set, with an appropriate parameter separability rule. Finally, we establish the absolute a posteriori error estimator for the reduced order solutions and the corresponding cost functions in terms of the state and adjoint residuals.

  7. We consider optimal control of fractional in time (subdiffusive, i.e., for \begin{document}$ 0<\gamma <1 $\end{document}) semilinear parabolic PDEs associated with various notions of diffusion operators in an unifying fashion. Under general assumptions on the nonlinearity we \begin{document}$\mathsf{first\;show}$\end{document} the existence and regularity of solutions to the forward and the associated \begin{document}$\mathsf{backward\;(adjoint)}$\end{document} problems. In the second part, we prove existence of optimal \begin{document}$\mathsf{controls }$\end{document} and characterize the associated \begin{document}$\mathsf{first\;order}$\end{document} optimality conditions. Several examples involving fractional in time (and some fractional in space diffusion) equations are described in detail. The most challenging obstacle we overcome is the failure of the semigroup property for the semilinear problem in any scaling of (frequency-domain) Hilbert spaces.

  8. Abstract In this article, we consider nondiffusive variational problems with mixed boundary conditions and (distributional and weak) gradient constraints. The upper bound in the constraint is either a function or a Borel measure, leading to the state space being a Sobolev one or the space of functions of bounded variation. We address existence and uniqueness of the model under low regularity assumptions, and rigorously identify its Fenchel pre-dual problem. The latter in some cases is posed on a nonstandard space of Borel measures with square integrable divergences. We also establish existence and uniqueness of solution to this pre-dual problem under some assumptions. We conclude the article by introducing a mixed finite-element method to solve the primal-dual system. The numerical examples illustrate the theoretical findings.