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  1. Abstract

    Recent experimental developments have allowed physicists to freeze molecules' motion down to an ultracold temperature regime where quantum effects become profound. Furthermore, each molecule can be precisely prepared at chosen internal states and the mutual interactions between molecules are also highly tunable. As such, ultracold molecules have emerged as a powerful platform in multiple disciplines across physics and chemistry. Meanwhile, a grand challenge exists as to how losses of molecules depend on a quantum many‐body environment. In this article, the recent experimental and theoretical progress of exploring losses of ultracold molecules is reviewed. Since the conventional theoretical scheme of treating isolated pairs of molecules is no longer applicable to the quantum degenerate regime that has been reached in recent experiments, an alternative framework of universal relations between two‐body losses and many‐body correlations has been established. Regardless of microscopic parameters ranging from the temperature and the particle number to the interaction strength, these universal relations always hold. This approach unfolds a simple universality behind complex loss processes of many‐body systems and provides physicists and chemists with a new tool to explore ultracold molecules.

     
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  2. We show that reactive molecules with a unit probability of reaction naturally provide a simulator of some intriguing black hole physics. The unit reaction at the short distance acts as an event horizon and delivers a one-way traffic for matter waves passing through the potential barrier when two molecules interact by high partial-wave scatterings or dipole-dipole interactions. In particular, the scattering rate as a function of the incident energy exhibits a thermal-like distribution near the maximum of the interaction energy in the same manner as a scalar field scatters with the potential barrier outside the event horizon of a black hole. Such a thermal-like scattering can be extracted from the temperature-dependent two-body loss rate measured in experiments on KRb and other molecules. 
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