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As the popularity of quantum computing continues to grow, quantum machine access over the cloud is critical to both academic and industry researchers across the globe. And as cloud quantum computing demands increase exponentially, the analysis of resource consumption and execution characteristics are key to efficient management of jobs and resources at both the vendor-end as well as the client-end. While the analysis of resource consumption and management are popular in the classical HPC domain, it is severely lacking for more nascent technology like quantum computing. This paper is a first-of-its-kind academic study, analyzing various trends in job execution and resources consumption / utilization on quantum cloud systems. We focus on IBM Quantum systems and analyze characteristics over a two year period, encompassing over 6000 jobs which contain over 600,000 quantum circuit executions and correspond to almost 10 billion “shots” or trials over 20+ quantum machines. Specifically, we analyze trends focused on, but not limited to, execution times on quantum machines, queuing/waiting times in the cloud, circuit compilation times, machine utilization, as well as the impact of job and machine characteristics on all of these trends. Our analysis identifies several similarities and differences with classical HPC cloud systems. Based on our insights, we make recommendations and contributions to improve the management of resources and jobs on future quantum cloud systems.more » « less
Simulating the time evolution of a physical system at quantum mechanical levels of detail - known as Hamiltonian Simulation (HS) - is an important and interesting problem across physics and chemistry. For this task, algorithms that run on quantum computers are known to be exponentially faster than classical algorithms; in fact, this application motivated Feynman to propose the construction of quantum computers. Nonetheless, there are challenges in reaching this performance potential. Prior work has focused on compiling circuits (quantum programs) for HS with the goal of maximizing either accuracy or gate cancellation. Our work proposes a compilation strategy that simultaneously advances both goals. At a high level, we use classical optimizations such as graph coloring and travelling salesperson to order the execution of quantum programs. Specifically, we group together mutually commuting terms in the Hamiltonian (a matrix characterizing the quantum mechanical system) to improve the accuracy of the simulation. We then rearrange the terms within each group to maximize gate cancellation in the final quantum circuit. These optimizations work together to improve HS performance and result in an average 40% reduction in circuit depth. This work advances the frontier of HS which in turn can advance physical and chemical modeling in both basic and applied sciences.more » « less
null (Ed.)Many quantum algorithms for machine learning require access to classical data in superposition. However, for many natural data sets and algorithms, the overhead required to load the data set in superposition can erase any potential quantum speedup over classical algorithms. Recent work by Harrow introduces a new paradigm in hybrid quantum-classical computing to address this issue, relying on coresets to minimize the data loading overhead of quantum algorithms. We investigated using this paradigm to perform k-means clustering on near-term quantum computers, by casting it as a QAOA optimization instance over a small coreset. We used numerical simulations to compare the performance of this approach to classical k-means clustering. We were able to find data sets with which coresets work well relative to random sampling and where QAOA could potentially outperform standard k-means on a coreset. However, finding data sets where both coresets and QAOA work well—which is necessary for a quantum advantage over k-means on the entire data set—appears to be challenging.more » « less