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  1. Abstract

    The manipulation of magnetization through optically generated ultrafast spin currents is a fascinating area that needs a thorough understanding for its potential future applications. In this work, a comprehensive investigation of helicity‐driven optical spin‐orbit torque in heavy metal/ferromagnetic metal heterostructures is presented, specifically cobalt capped with gold or platinum, subject to laser pumping at different wavelengths. The results demonstrate up to tenfold enhancement in optical spin‐orbit torque quantum efficiency for gold compared to platinum of the same thickness when pumped with a visible laser. Additionally, the study provides the first experimental analysis of the photon energy dependence of optical spin‐orbit torque and derives the optical spin orientation spectra for both gold/cobalt and platinum/cobalt heterostructures. A key insight gained from the study is the impact of photon energy‐dependent spin transport in the system, which suggests the use of a high photon energy pump for efficient spin transport. These findings highlight the potential of spin current generation and manipulation in gold/ferromagnet heterostructures for a wide range of applications such as all‐optical magnetization switching, spin‐wave generation and control, and spintronic terahertz emission.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 18, 2024
  2. Abstract

    In this work, mode conversion and wavefront shaping by integrating a metallic metasurface on top of a planar waveguide are proposed and demonstrated. The metasurface consists of C‐shaped nanoantennas. By controlling the orientation of each nanoantenna, mode conversion and focusing effect for the cross‐polarized electric fields inside the waveguide are achieved. The design and simulation results of 16 scenarios of wideband transverse‐magnetic to transverse‐electric mode converters with the mode purity up to 98%, and on‐chip lenses at the wavelength of 1550 nm are reported. It is worth noting that the dimension of the devices along the propagation direction is only 9.6 µm. This work manifests the potential application of mode division multiplexing systems and on‐chip optical interconnections based on metasurfaces.

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  3. Abstract

    Graphene, a 2D material with tunable optical properties, has recently attracted intense interest for reconfigurable metasurfaces. So far, the working wavelength of graphene‐based or hybrid graphene metasurfaces has been limited in the mid‐infrared and terahertz spectra. In this paper, by combining graphene with Au nanostructures, the authors demonstrate a near‐infrared tunable metasurface with decent modulation efficiency, weak dependence on graphene's carrier mobility, and small gate voltages, attributing to the unique interband transition of graphene. The experimental results agree well with numerical simulations. It is also shown that by properly designing the structural parameters of Au nanostructures, the hybrid graphene metasurface can be tunable in both near‐infrared and mid‐infrared regions.

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  4. Abstract

    As 2D metamaterials, metasurfaces provide an unprecedented means to manipulate light with the ability to multiplex different functionalities in a single planar device. Currently, most pursuits of multifunctional metasurfaces resort to empirically accommodating more functionalities at the cost of increasing structural complexity, with little effort to investigate the intrinsic restrictions of given meta‐atoms and thus the ultimate limits in the design. In this work, it is proposed to embed machine‐learning models in both gradient‐based and nongradient optimization loops for the automatic implementation of multifunctional metasurfaces. Fundamentally different from the traditional two‐step approach that separates phase retrieval and meta‐atom structural design, the proposed end‐to‐end framework facilitates full exploitation of the prescribed design space and pushes the multifunctional design capacity to its physical limit. With a single‐layer structure that can be readily fabricated, metasurface focusing lenses and holograms are experimentally demonstrated in the near‐infrared region. They show up to eight controllable responses subjected to different combinations of working frequencies and linear polarization states, which are unachievable by the conventional physics‐guided approaches. These results manifest the superior capability of the data‐driven scheme for photonic design, and will accelerate the development of complex devices and systems for optical display, communication, and computing.

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  5. Non-Hermitian meta-gratings enable unidirectional excitation and reflection of optical surface waves at the nanoscale. 
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  6. Engineered noise can increase the channel capacity for polarization multiplexing with a metasurface hologram. 
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