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  1. Abstract

    The landscape of high performance computing (HPC) has witnessed exponential growth in processor diversity, architectural complexity, and performance scalability. With an ever-increasing demand for faster and more efficient computing solutions to address an array of scientific, engineering, and societal challenges, the selection of processors for specific applications becomes paramount. Achieving optimal performance requires a deep understanding of how diverse processors interact with diverse workloads, making benchmarking a fundamental practice in the field of HPC. Here, we present preliminary results observed over such benchmarks and applications and a comparison of Intel Sapphire Rapids and Skylake-X, AMD Milan, and Fujitsu A64FX processors in terms of runtime performance, memory bandwidth utilization, and energy consumption. The examples focus specifically on the Sapphire Rapids processor with and without high-bandwidth memory (HBM). An additional case study reports the performance gains from using Intel’s Advanced Matrix Extensions (AMX) instructions, and how they along with HBM can be leveraged to accelerate AI workloads. These initial results aim to give a rough comparison of the processors rather than a detailed analysis and should prove timely and relevant for researchers who may be interested in using Sapphire Rapids for their scientific workloads.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2025
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2025
  3. The engineering samples of the NVIDIA Grace CPU Superchip and NVIDIA Grace Hopper Superchips were tested using different benchmarks and scientific applications. The benchmarks include HPCC and HPCG. The real application-based benchmark includes AI-Benchmark-Alpha (a TensorFlow benchmark), Gromacs, OpenFOAM, and ROMS. The performance was compared to multiple Intel, AMD, ARM CPUs and several x86 with NVIDIA GPU systems. A brief energy efficiency estimate was performed based on TDP values. We found that in HPCC benchmark tests, the per-core performance of Grace is similar to or faster than AMD Milan cores, and the high core count often allows NVIDIA Grace CPU Superchip to have per-node performance similar to Intel Sapphire Rapids with High Bandwidth Memory: slower in matrix multiplication (by 17%) and FFT (by 6%), faster in Linpack (by 9%)). In scientific applications, the NVIDIA Grace CPU Superchip performance is slower by 6% to 18% in Gromacs, faster by 7% in OpenFOAM, and right between HBM and DDR modes of Intel Sapphire Rapids in ROMS. The combined CPU-GPU performance in Gromacs is significantly faster (by 20% to 117% faster) than any tested x86-NVIDIA GPU system. Overall, the new NVIDIA Grace Hopper Superchip and NVIDIA Grace CPU Superchip Superchip are high-performance and most likely energy-efficient solutions for HPC centers. 
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  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 10, 2024