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  1. Boolean matrix factorization (BMF) has been widely utilized in fields such as recommendation systems, graph learning, text mining, and -omics data analysis. Traditional BMF methods decompose a binary matrix into the Boolean product of two lower-rank Boolean matrices plus homoscedastic random errors. However, real-world binary data typically involves biases arising from heterogeneous row- and column-wise signal distributions. Such biases can lead to suboptimal fitting and unexplainable predictions if not accounted for. In this study, we reconceptualize the binary data generation as the Boolean sum of three components: a binary pattern matrix, a background bias matrix influenced by heterogeneous row or column distributions, and random flipping errors. We introduce a novel Disentangled Representation Learning for Binary matrices (DRLB) method, which employs a dual auto-encoder network to reveal the true patterns. DRLB can be seamlessly integrated with existing BMF techniques to facilitate bias-aware BMF. Our experiments with both synthetic and real-world datasets show that DRLB significantly enhances the precision of traditional BMF methods while offering high scalability. Moreover, the bias matrix detected by DRLB accurately reflects the inherent biases in synthetic data, and the patterns identified in the bias-corrected real-world data exhibit enhanced interpretability. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 26, 2025