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  1. Abstract

    Contact electrification in a gas medium is usually followed by partial surface charge dissipation caused by dielectric breakdown of the gas triggered during separation of the surfaces. It is widely assumed that such discharge obeys the classical Paschen’s law, which describes the general dependence of the breakdown voltage on the product of gas pressure and gap distance. However, quantification of this relationship in contact electrification involving insulators is impeded by challenges in nondestructive in situ measurement of the gap voltage. The present work implements an electrode-free strategy for capturing discrete discharge events by monitoring the gap voltage via Coulomb force, providing experimental evidence of Paschen curves governing nitrogen breakdown in silicone-acrylic and copper-nylon contact electrification. It offers an alternative approach for characterizing either the ionization energies of gases or the secondary-electron-emission properties of surfaces without the requirement of a power supply, which can potentially benefit applications ranging from the design of insulative materials to the development of triboelectric sensors and generators.

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  2. Abstract

    This paper examines the effect of viscoelasticity on the dynamic behavior of a bistable dome-shaped structure represented as a lumped parameter viscoelastic von Mises truss. The viscoelastic system is governed by a third order jerk equation. The presence of viscoelasticity also introduces additional time scales and degrees of freedom into the problem when compared to their viscous counterparts, thus making the study of these systems in the presence of harmonic loading even more interesting. It is highly likely that the system would exhibit non-regular behavior for some combination of forcing frequency and forcing amplitude. With this motivation, we start by studying the dynamics of a harmonically forced von Mises truss in the presence of viscous damping only. This leads to a Duffing type equation with an additional quadratic non-linearity. We demonstrate some of the rich dynamic behavior that this system exhibits in some parameter ranges. This provides useful insight into the possible behavior of the viscoelastic system. The viscous damper is then replaced by a viscoelastic unit. We show that the system can exhibit both regular as well as chaotic behavior. The threshold limit for the chaotic motion has been determined using Melnikov’s criteria and verified through numerical simulations using the largest Lyapunov exponent.

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  3. Abstract

    Kirigami is defined as the ancient Japanese art of cutting and folding paper to create three-dimensional structures, which is a subset of the larger term. Recent developments in kirigami-based structures have sparked interest in the engineering community for the development of mechanical metastructures with customized behavior such as negative Poisson’s ratio, out-of-plane buckling, and soft robot locomotion. In this manuscript, nonlinear springs based on kirigami are developed; the springs can be used to create customized nonlinear oscillators and vibration suppression systems. A Helmholtz-Duffing oscillator with nonlinear damping is created by attaching a mass to a smooth track with the kirigami springs attached to it.

    Kirigami springs were made by strategically cutting plastic sheets in predetermined patterns and arranging them in a ring. Identification of the unknown system parameters is accomplished through the use of a two-step procedure. To determine the quasi-static behavior of the spring, it was first subjected to tensile testing. These parameters serve as the foundation for developing a strategy for determining the unknown energy loss parameters in a system. In the second step, the Method of Multiple Scales is used to develop an approximate solution for the transient response, which is then tested. This solution is coupled with an optimization routine that, by modifying the unknown model parameters, seeks to reduce the error between the experimental free oscillations and the developed analytical solution as closely as possible.

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  4. In this article we propose a theoretical investigation of the nonlinear dynamical response of a class of planar resonators dubbed the V-Shaped resonator. The resonators are intended for energy harvesting purpose and are designed to exhibit two-to-one internal resonance. In particular, we navigate the design space for the generalized V-shaped resonator to investigate the influence of shape parameters on the performance of the Vibration Energy Harvester. Notably, we introduce two metrics that help elucidating the role of the shape parameter in dictating the behavior of the system in terms of peak voltage and operational bandwidth width. For simplicity, we consider that the system is subjected to harmonic excitations near its primary resonances. 
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