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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2025
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2025
  3. Abstract NONEXPRESSER OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES 1 (NPR1) is the master regulator of salicylic acid-mediated basal and systemic acquired resistance in plants. Here, we report that NPR1 plays a pivotal role in restricting compatible infection by turnip mosaic virus, a member of the largest plant RNA virus genus Potyvirus , and that such resistance is counteracted by NUCLEAR INCLUSION B (NIb), the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. We demonstrate that NIb binds to the SUMO-interacting motif 3 (SIM3) of NPR1 to prevent SUMO3 interaction and sumoylation, while sumoylation of NIb by SUMO3 is not essential but can intensify the NIb–NPR1 interaction. We discover that the interaction also impedes the phosphorylation of NPR1 at Ser11/Ser15. Moreover, we show that targeting NPR1 SIM3 is a conserved ability of NIb from diverse potyviruses. These data reveal a molecular “arms race” by which potyviruses deploy NIb to suppress NPR1-mediated resistance through disrupting NPR1 sumoylation. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2024
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
  5. Plants are a vital component of human life on Earth; they provide us with food and essential nutrients as well as the oxygen we breathe. However, the science education community struggles to find ways to make plant processes less abstract and more understandable for learners. In this article we demonstrate how we make plant processes more understandable for learners by observing the behaviors of a specific plant structure, a stoma, which is a microscopic opening that plays a role in the movement of matter into and out of a plant. Recent research across plant-related science fields centers on plant stomata because they protect plants from various environmental strains, including attacks from pathogens. Translating this research into science classroom instruction has not occurred extensively. A key impediment is that few common methods to make stomata visible or demonstrate their dynamic nature to learners are available. The activities we share here make stomata visible utilizing a specific plant, Tradescantia zebrina, and common laboratory equipment. In the first activity, we share how to demonstrate stomata closing and opening by manipulating a combination of these environmental factors. In the second activity, we describe how to create a visual simulation of stomata response to attacks from microorganisms. 
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