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  1. A Reynolds-averaged two-phase Eulerian model for sediment transport, SedFoam, is utilized in a twodimensional domain for a given sediment grain size, flow period, and mobility number to study the asymmetric and skewed flow effects on the sediment transport over coarse-sand migrating ripples. First, the model is validated with a full-scale water tunnel experiment of orbital ripple driven by acceleration skewed (asymmetric) oscillatory flow with good agreement in the flow velocity, net sediment transport, and ripple migration rate. The model results showed that the asymmetric flow causes a net onshore sediment transport of both suspended and near-bed load (the conventional bed load and part of the near-bed suspended load, responsible for ripple migration). The suspended load transport is driven by the “positive phase-lag” effect, while the near-bed transport is due to the large erosion of the boundary layer on the stoss flank, sediment avalanching on the lee flank, and the returning flux induced by the stoss vortex. Together, these processes result in a net onshore transport rate. In contrast, for an energetic velocity skewed (skewed) flow, the net transport rate is offshore directed. This is due to a larger offshore-directed suspended load transport rate, resulting from the “negative phase-lag” effect, compared to the onshore-directed near-bed load transport rate. Compared to the asymmetric flow, the onshore near-bed load transport (and migration) rate is limited by the larger offshore directed flux associated with returning flow on the lee side, due to a stronger lee vortex generation during the onshore flow half-cycle. In the combined asymmetric-skewed case, the near-bed load and migration rate are higher than in the asymmetric flow case. Moreover, the offshore-directed suspended load is much smaller compared to the skewed flow case due to a competition between the negative (due to velocity skewness) and positive (due to acceleration skewness) phase-lag effects. As a result, the net transport rate is onshore directed but slightly smaller than the asymmetric flow case. 
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