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  1. Mitrovic, Antonija ; Bosch, Nigel (Ed.)
    As online learning platforms become more ubiquitous throughout various curricula, there is a growing need to evaluate the effectiveness of these platforms and the different methods used to structure online education and tutoring. Towards this endeavor, some platforms have performed randomized controlled experiments to compare different user experiences, curriculum structures, and tutoring strategies in order to ensure the effectiveness of their platform and personalize the education of the students using it. These experiments are typically analyzed on an individual basis in order to reveal insights on a specific aspect of students' online educational experience. In this work, the data from 50,752 instances of 30,408 students participating in 50 different experiments conducted at scale within the online learning platform ASSISTments were aggregated and analyzed for consistent trends across experiments. By combining common experimental conditions and normalizing the dependent measures between experiments, this work has identified multiple statistically significant insights on the impact of various skill mastery requirements, strategies for personalization, and methods for tutoring in an online setting. This work can help direct further experimentation and inform the design and improvement of new and existing online learning platforms. The anonymized data compiled for this work are hosted by the Open Science Foundation and can be found at https://osf.io/59shv/. 
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  2. Mitrovic, Antonija ; Bosch, Nigel (Ed.)
    As online learning platforms become more ubiquitous throughout various curricula, there is a growing need to evaluate the effectiveness of these platforms and the different methods used to structure online education and tutoring. Towards this endeavor, some platforms have performed randomized controlled experiments to compare different user experiences, curriculum structures, and tutoring strategies in order to ensure the effectiveness of their platform and personalize the education of the students using it. These experiments are typically analyzed on an individual basis in order to reveal insights on a specific aspect of students' online educational experience. In this work, the data from 50,752 instances of 30,408 students participating in 50 different experiments conducted at scale within the online learning platform ASSISTments were aggregated and analyzed for consistent trends across experiments. By combining common experimental conditions and normalizing the dependent measures between experiments, this work has identified multiple statistically significant insights on the impact of various skill mastery requirements, strategies for personalization, and methods for tutoring in an online setting. This work can help direct further experimentation and inform the design and improvement of new and existing online learning platforms. The anonymized data compiled for this work are hosted by the Open Science Foundation and can be found at https://osf.io/59shv/. 
    more » « less
  3. Mitrovic, Antonija ; Bosch, Nigel (Ed.)
    As online learning platforms become more ubiquitous throughout various curricula, there is a growing need to evaluate the effectiveness of these platforms and the different methods used to structure online education and tutoring. Towards this endeavor, some platforms have performed randomized controlled experiments to compare different user experiences, curriculum structures, and tutoring strategies in order to ensure the effectiveness of their platform and personalize the education of the students using it. These experiments are typically analyzed on an individual basis in order to reveal insights on a specific aspect of students' online educational experience. In this work, the data from 50,752 instances of 30,408 students participating in 50 different experiments conducted at scale within the online learning platform ASSISTments were aggregated and analyzed for consistent trends across experiments. By combining common experimental conditions and normalizing the dependent measures between experiments, this work has identified multiple statistically significant insights on the impact of various skill mastery requirements, strategies for personalization, and methods for tutoring in an online setting. This work can help direct further experimentation and inform the design and improvement of new and existing online learning platforms. The anonymized data compiled for this work are hosted by the Open Science Foundation and can be found at https://osf.io/59shv/. 
    more » « less
  4. Mitrovic, Antonija ; Bosch, Nigel (Ed.)
    Classroom environments are challenging for artificially intelligent agents primarily because classroom noise dilutes the interpretability and usefulness of gathered data. This problem is exacerbated when groups of students participate in collaborative problem solving (CPS). Here, we examine how well six popular microphones capture audio from individual groups. A primary usage of audio data is automatic speech recognition (ASR), therefore we evaluate our recordings by examining the accuracy of downstream ASR using the Google Cloud Platform. We simultaneously captured the audio of all microphones for 11 unique groups of three participants first reading a prepared script, and then participating in a collaborative problem solving exercise. We vary participants, noise conditions, and speech contexts. Transcribed speech was evaluated using word error rate (WER). We find that scripted speech is transcribed with a surprisingly high degree of accuracy across groups (average WER = 0.114, SD = 0.044). However, the CPS task was much more difficult (average WER = 0.570, SD = 0.143). We found most microphones were robust to background noise below a certain threshold, but the AT-Cardioid and ProCon microphones were more robust to higher noise levels. Finally, an analysis of errors revealed that most errors were due to the ASR missing words/phrases, rather than mistranscribing them. We conclude with recommendations based on our observations. 
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  5. Mitrovic, Antonija ; Bosch, Nigel (Ed.)
    In collaborative problem solving (CPS), people's actions are interactive, interdependent, and temporal. However, it is unclear how actions temporally relate to each other and what are the temporal similarities and differences between successful vs. unsuccessful CPS processes. As such, we apply a temporal analysis approach, Multilevel Vector Autoregression (mlVAR) to investigate CPS processes. Our data were collected from college students who collaborated in triads via a video-conferencing tool (Zoom) to collaborately engage a physics learning game. Video recordings of their verbal interactions were transcribed, coded using a validated CPS framework, and organized into sequences of 10-second windows. Then, mlVAR was applied to the successful vs. unsuccessful CPS sequences to build temporal models for each. A comparison of the models together with a qualitative analysis of the transcripts revealed six temporal relationships common to both, six unique to successful level attempts, and another eight unique to unsuccessful level attempts only. Generally, for successful outcomes, people were likely to answer clarification questions with reasons and to ask for suggestions according to the current game situation, while for unsuccessful CPS level attempts, people were more likely to struggle with unclear instructions and to respond to inappropriate ideas. Overall, our results suggest that mlVAR is an effective approach for temporal analyses of CPS processes by identifying relationships that go beyond a coding and counting approach. 
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