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  1. Morrell, P (Ed.)
    Abstract By modeling the homoeologous gene losses that occurred in 50 genomes deriving from ten distinct polyploidy events, we show that the evolutionary forces acting on polyploids are remarkably similar, regardless of whether they occur in flowering plants, ciliates, fishes, or yeasts. We show that many of the events show a relative rate of duplicate gene loss before the first postpolyploidy speciation that is significantly higher than in later phases of their evolution. The relatively weak selective constraint experienced by the single-copy genes these losses produced leads us to suggest that most of the purely selectively neutral duplicate gene losses occur in the immediate postpolyploid period. Nearly all of the events show strong evidence of biases in the duplicate losses, consistent with them being allopolyploidies, with 2 distinct progenitors contributing to the modern species. We also find ongoing and extensive reciprocal gene losses (alternative losses of duplicated ancestral genes) between these genomes. With the exception of a handful of closely related taxa, all of these polyploid organisms are separated from each other by tens to thousands of reciprocal gene losses. As a result, it is very unlikely that viable diploid hybrid species could form between these taxa, since matings betweenmore »such hybrids would tend to produce offspring lacking essential genes. It is, therefore, possible that the relatively high frequency of recurrent polyploidies in some lineages may be due to the ability of new polyploidies to bypass reciprocal gene loss barriers.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 22, 2023
  2. Morrell, P (Ed.)
    Abstract Muscadinia rotundifolia, the muscadine grape, has been cultivated for centuries in the southeastern United States. M. rotundifolia is resistant to many of the pathogens that detrimentally affect Vitis vinifera, the grape species commonly used for winemaking. For this reason, M. rotundifolia is a valuable genetic resource for breeding. Single-molecule real-time reads were combined with optical maps to reconstruct the two haplotypes of each of the 20 M. rotundifolia cv. Trayshed chromosomes. The completeness and accuracy of the assembly were confirmed using a high-density linkage map. Protein-coding genes were annotated using an integrated and comprehensive approach. This included using full-length cDNA sequencing (Iso-Seq) to improve gene structure and hypothetical spliced variant predictions. Our data strongly support that Muscadinia chromosomes 7 and 20 are fused in Vitis and pinpoint the location of the fusion in Cabernet Sauvignon and PN40024 chromosome 7. Disease-related gene numbers in Trayshed and Cabernet Sauvignon were similar, but their clustering locations were different. A dramatic expansion of the Toll/Interleukin-1 Receptor-like Nucleotide-Binding Site Leucine-Rich Repeat (TIR-NBS-LRR) class was detected on Trayshed chromosome 12 at the Resistance to Uncinula necator 1 (RUN1)/Resistance to Plasmopara viticola 1 (RPV1) locus, which confers strong dominant resistance to powdery and downy mildews. A genomemore »browser, annotation, and Blast tool for Trayshed are available at www.grapegenomics.com.« less
  3. Morrell, P L (Ed.)
    Abstract With the rapid rise in availability of high-quality genomes for closely related species, methods for orthology inference that incorporate synteny are increasingly useful. Polyploidy perturbs the 1:1 expected frequencies of orthologs between two species, complicating the identification of orthologs. Here we present a method of ortholog inference, Ploidy-aware Syntenic Orthologous Networks Identified via Collinearity (pSONIC). We demonstrate the utility of pSONIC using four species in the cotton tribe (Gossypieae), including one allopolyploid, and place between 75% and 90% of genes from each species into nearly 32,000 orthologous groups, 97% of which consist of at most singletons or tandemly duplicated genes—58.8% more than comparable methods that do not incorporate synteny. We show that 99% of singleton gene groups follow the expected tree topology and that our ploidy-aware algorithm recovers 97.5% identical groups when compared to splitting the allopolyploid into its two respective subgenomes, treating each as separate “species.”