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  1. Purugganan, Michael (Ed.)
    Abstract Subgenome dominance after whole-genome duplication (WGD) has been observed in many plant species. However, the degree to which the chromatin environment affects this bias has not been explored. Here, we compared the dominant subgenome (maize1) and the recessive subgenome (maize2) with respect to patterns of sequence substitutions, genes expression, transposable element accumulation, small interfering RNAs, DNA methylation, histone modifications, and accessible chromatin regions (ACRs). Our data show that the degree of bias between subgenomes for all the measured variables does not vary significantly when both of the WGD genes are located in pericentromeric regions. Our data further indicate that the location of maize1 genes in chromosomal arms is pivotal for maize1 to maintain its dominance, but location has a less effect on maize2 homoeologs. In addition to homoeologous genes, we compared ACRs, which often harbor cis-regulatory elements, between the two subgenomes and demonstrate that maize1 ACRs have a higher level of chromatin accessibility, a lower level of sequence substitution, and are enriched in chromosomal arms. Furthermore, we find that a loss of maize1 ACRs near their nearby genes is associated with a reduction in purifying selection and expression of maize1 genes relative to their maize2 homoeologs. Taken together, ourmore »data suggest that chromatin environment and cis-regulatory elements are important determinants shaping the divergence and evolution of duplicated genes.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2023
  2. Purugganan, Michael (Ed.)
    Abstract Nudix hydrolases are conserved enzymes ubiquitously present in all kingdoms of life. Recent research revealed that several Nudix hydrolases are involved in terpenoid metabolism in plants. In modern roses, RhNUDX1 is responsible for formation of geraniol, a major compound of rose scent. Nevertheless, this compound is produced by monoterpene synthases in many geraniol-producing plants. As a consequence, this raised the question about the origin of RhNUDX1 function and the NUDX1 gene evolution in Rosaceae, in wild roses or/and during the domestication process. Here, we showed that three distinct clades of NUDX1 emerged in the Rosoidae subfamily (Nudx1-1 to Nudx1-3 clades), and two subclades evolved in the Rosa genus (Nudx1-1a and Nudx1-1b subclades). We also showed that the Nudx1-1b subclade was more ancient than the Nudx1-1a subclade, and that the NUDX1-1a gene emerged by a trans-duplication of the more ancient NUDX1-1b gene. After the transposition, NUDX1-1a was cis-duplicated, leading to a gene dosage effect on the production of geraniol in different species. Furthermore, the NUDX1-1a appearance was accompanied by the evolution of its promoter, most likely from a Copia retrotransposon origin, leading to its petal-specific expression. Thus, our data strongly suggest that the unique function of NUDX1-1a in geraniol formationmore »was evolved naturally in the genus Rosa before domestication.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2023
  3. Purugganan, Michael (Ed.)
    Abstract Whole-genome duplication (polyploidization) is among the most dramatic mutational processes in nature, so understanding how natural selection differs in polyploids relative to diploids is an important goal. Population genetics theory predicts that recessive deleterious mutations accumulate faster in allopolyploids than diploids due to the masking effect of redundant gene copies, but this prediction is hitherto unconfirmed. Here, we use the cotton genus (Gossypium), which contains seven allopolyploids derived from a single polyploidization event 1–2 Million years ago, to investigate deleterious mutation accumulation. We use two methods of identifying deleterious mutations at the nucleotide and amino acid level, along with whole-genome resequencing of 43 individuals spanning six allopolyploid species and their two diploid progenitors, to demonstrate that deleterious mutations accumulate faster in allopolyploids than in their diploid progenitors. We find that, unlike what would be expected under models of demographic changes alone, strongly deleterious mutations show the biggest difference between ploidy levels, and this effect diminishes for moderately and mildly deleterious mutations. We further show that the proportion of nonsynonymous mutations that are deleterious differs between the two coresident subgenomes in the allopolyploids, suggesting that homoeologous masking acts unequally between subgenomes. Our results provide a genome-wide perspective on classic notionsmore »of the significance of gene duplication that likely are broadly applicable to allopolyploids, with implications for our understanding of the evolutionary fate of deleterious mutations. Finally, we note that some measures of selection (e.g., dN/dS, πN/πS) may be biased when species of different ploidy levels are compared.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2023
  4. Purugganan, Michael (Ed.)
    Abstract The deleterious effects of inbreeding have been of extreme importance to evolutionary biology, but it has been difficult to characterize the complex interactions between genetic constraints and selection that lead to fitness loss and recovery after inbreeding. Haploid organisms and selfing organisms like the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans are capable of rapid recovery from the fixation of novel deleterious mutation; however, the potential for recovery and genomic consequences of inbreeding in diploid, outcrossing organisms are not well understood. We sought to answer two questions: 1) Can a diploid, outcrossing population recover from inbreeding via standing genetic variation and new mutation? and 2) How does allelic diversity change during recovery? We inbred C. remanei, an outcrossing relative of C. elegans, through brother-sister mating for 30 generations followed by recovery at large population size. Inbreeding reduced fitness but, surprisingly, recovery from inbreeding at large populations sizes generated only very moderate fitness recovery after 300 generations. We found that 65% of ancestral single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were fixed in the inbred population, far fewer than the theoretical expectation of ∼99%. Under recovery, 36 SNPs across 30 genes involved in alimentary, muscular, nervous, and reproductive systems changed reproducibly across replicates, indicating that strong selectionmore »for fitness recovery does exist. Our results indicate that recovery from inbreeding depression via standing genetic variation and mutation is likely to be constrained by the large number of segregating deleterious variants present in natural populations, limiting the capacity for recovery of small populations.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023
  5. Purugganan, Michael (Ed.)
    Abstract As drivers of evolutionary innovations, new genes allow organisms to explore new niches. However, clear examples of this process remain scarce. Bamboos, the unique grass lineage diversifying into the forest, have evolved with a key innovation of fast growth of woody stem, reaching up to 1 m/day. Here, we identify 1,622 bamboo-specific orphan genes that appeared in recent 46 million years, and 19 of them evolved from noncoding ancestral sequences with entire de novo origination process reconstructed. The new genes evolved gradually in exon−intron structure, protein length, expression specificity, and evolutionary constraint. These new genes, whether or not from de novo origination, are dominantly expressed in the rapidly developing shoots, and make transcriptomes of shoots the youngest among various bamboo tissues, rather than reproductive tissue in other plants. Additionally, the particularity of bamboo shoots has also been shaped by recent whole-genome duplicates (WGDs), which evolved divergent expression patterns from ancestral states. New genes and WGDs have been evolutionarily recruited into coexpression networks to underline fast-growing trait of bamboo shoot. Our study highlights the importance of interactions between new genes and genome duplicates in generating morphological innovation.
  6. Purugganan, Michael (Ed.)
    Abstract In most eukaryotes, transfer RNAs (tRNAs) are one of the very few classes of genes remaining in the mitochondrial genome, but some mitochondria have lost these vestiges of their prokaryotic ancestry. Sequencing of mitogenomes from the flowering plant genus Silene previously revealed a large range in tRNA gene content, suggesting rapid and ongoing gene loss/replacement. Here, we use this system to test longstanding hypotheses about how mitochondrial tRNA genes are replaced by importing nuclear-encoded tRNAs. We traced the evolutionary history of these gene loss events by sequencing mitochondrial genomes from key outgroups (Agrostemma githago and Silene [=Lychnis] chalcedonica). We then performed the first global sequencing of purified plant mitochondrial tRNA populations to characterize the expression of mitochondrial-encoded tRNAs and the identity of imported nuclear-encoded tRNAs. We also confirmed the utility of high-throughput sequencing methods for the detection of tRNA import by sequencing mitochondrial tRNA populations in a species (Solanum tuberosum) with known tRNA trafficking patterns. Mitochondrial tRNA sequencing in Silene revealed substantial shifts in the abundance of some nuclear-encoded tRNAs in conjunction with their recent history of mt-tRNA gene loss and surprising cases where tRNAs with anticodons still encoded in the mitochondrial genome also appeared to be imported. Thesemore »data suggest that nuclear-encoded counterparts are likely replacing mitochondrial tRNAs even in systems with recent mitochondrial tRNA gene loss, and the redundant import of a nuclear-encoded tRNA may provide a mechanism for functional replacement between translation systems separated by billions of years of evolutionary divergence.« less
  7. Purugganan, Michael (Ed.)
    Abstract The field of evolutionary developmental biology can help address how morphological novelties evolve, a key question in evolutionary biology. In Arabidopsis thaliana, APETALA2 (AP2) plays a role in the development of key plant innovations including seeds, flowers, and fruits. AP2 belongs to the AP2/ETHYLENE RESPONSIVE ELEMENT BINDING FACTOR family which has members in all viridiplantae, making it one of the oldest and most diverse gene lineages. One key subclade, present across vascular plants is the euAPETALA2 (euAP2) clade, whose founding member is AP2. We reconstructed the evolution of the euAP2 gene lineage in vascular plants to better understand its impact on the morphological evolution of plants, identifying seven major duplication events. We also performed spatiotemporal expression analyses of euAP2/TOE3 genes focusing on less explored vascular plant lineages, including ferns, gymnosperms, early diverging angiosperms and early diverging eudicots. Altogether, our data suggest that euAP2 genes originally contributed to spore and sporangium development, and were subsequently recruited to ovule, fruit and floral organ development. Finally, euAP2 protein sequences are highly conserved; therefore, changes in the role of euAP2 homologs during development are most likely due to changes in regulatory regions.
  8. Purugganan, Michael (Ed.)
    Abstract Structural variants (SVs) are a largely unstudied feature of plant genome evolution, despite the fact that SVs contribute substantially to phenotypes. In this study, we discovered SVs across a population sample of 347 high-coverage, resequenced genomes of Asian rice (Oryza sativa) and its wild ancestor (O. rufipogon). In addition to this short-read data set, we also inferred SVs from whole-genome assemblies and long-read data. Comparisons among data sets revealed different features of genome variability. For example, genome alignment identified a large (∼4.3 Mb) inversion in indica rice varieties relative to japonica varieties, and long-read analyses suggest that ∼9% of genes from the outgroup (O. longistaminata) are hemizygous. We focused, however, on the resequencing sample to investigate the population genomics of SVs. Clustering analyses with SVs recapitulated the rice cultivar groups that were also inferred from SNPs. However, the site-frequency spectrum of each SV type—which included inversions, duplications, deletions, translocations, and mobile element insertions—was skewed toward lower frequency variants than synonymous SNPs, suggesting that SVs may be predominantly deleterious. Among transposable elements, SINE and mariner insertions were found at especially low frequency. We also used SVs to study domestication by contrasting between rice and O. rufipogon. Cultivated genomes contained ∼25% more derived SVs andmore »mobile element insertions than O. rufipogon, indicating that SVs contribute to the cost of domestication in rice. Peaks of SV divergence were enriched for known domestication genes, but we also detected hundreds of genes gained and lost during domestication, some of which were enriched for traits of agronomic interest.« less