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Tauman Kalai, Yael (Ed.)We introduce and study the communication complexity of computing the inner product of two vectors, where the input is restricted w.r.t. a norm N on the space ℝⁿ. Here, Alice and Bob hold two vectors v,u such that ‖v‖_N ≤ 1 and ‖u‖_{N^*} ≤ 1, where N^* is the dual norm. The goal is to compute their inner product ⟨v,u⟩ up to an ε additive term. The problem is denoted by IP_N, and generalizes important previously studied problems, such as: (1) Computing the expectation 𝔼_{x∼𝒟}[f(x)] when Alice holds 𝒟 and Bob holds f is equivalent to IP_{𝓁₁}. (2) Computing v^TAv where Alice has a symmetric matrix with bounded operator norm (denoted S_∞) and Bob has a vector v where ‖v‖₂ = 1. This problem is complete for quantum communication complexity and is equivalent to IP_{S_∞}. We systematically study IP_N, showing the following results, near tight in most cases: 1) For any symmetric norm N, given ‖v‖_N ≤ 1 and ‖u‖_{N^*} ≤ 1 there is a randomized protocol using 𝒪̃(ε^{6} log n) bits of communication that returns a value in ⟨u,v⟩±ε with probability 2/3  we will denote this by ℛ_{ε,1/3}(IP_N) ≤ 𝒪̃(ε^{6} log n). In a special case where N = 𝓁_p and N^* = 𝓁_q for p^{1} + q^{1} = 1, we obtain an improved bound ℛ_{ε,1/3}(IP_{𝓁_p}) ≤ 𝒪(ε^{2} log n), nearly matching the lower bound ℛ_{ε, 1/3}(IP_{𝓁_p}) ≥ Ω(min(n, ε^{2})). 2) One way communication complexity ℛ^{→}_{ε,δ}(IP_{𝓁_p}) ≤ 𝒪(ε^{max(2,p)}⋅ log n/ε), and a nearly matching lower bound ℛ^{→}_{ε, 1/3}(IP_{𝓁_p}) ≥ Ω(ε^{max(2,p)}) for ε^{max(2,p)} ≪ n. 3) One way communication complexity ℛ^{→}_{ε,δ}(N) for a symmetric norm N is governed by the distortion of the embedding 𝓁_∞^k into N. Specifically, while a small distortion embedding easily implies a lower bound Ω(k), we show that, conversely, nonexistence of such an embedding implies protocol with communication k^𝒪(log log k) log² n. 4) For arbitrary origin symmetric convex polytope P, we show ℛ_{ε,1/3}(IP_{N}) ≤ 𝒪(ε^{2} log xc(P)), where N is the unique norm for which P is a unit ball, and xc(P) is the extension complexity of P (i.e. the smallest number of inequalities describing some polytope P' s.t. P is projection of P').more » « less

Tauman Kalai, Yael (Ed.)We study the complexity of proof systems augmenting resolution with inference rules that allow, given a formula Γ in conjunctive normal form, deriving clauses that are not necessarily logically implied by Γ but whose addition to Γ preserves satisfiability. When the derived clauses are allowed to introduce variables not occurring in Γ, the systems we consider become equivalent to extended resolution. We are concerned with the versions of these systems without new variables. They are called BC⁻, RAT⁻, SBC⁻, and GER⁻, denoting respectively blocked clauses, resolution asymmetric tautologies, setblocked clauses, and generalized extended resolution. Each of these systems formalizes some restricted version of the ability to make assumptions that hold  without loss of generality  which is commonly used informally to simplify or shorten proofs. Except for SBC⁻, these systems are known to be exponentially weaker than extended resolution. They are, however, all equivalent to it under a relaxed notion of simulation that allows the translation of the formula along with the proof when moving between proof systems. By taking advantage of this fact, we construct formulas that separate RAT⁻ from GER⁻ and vice versa. With the same strategy, we also separate SBC⁻ from RAT⁻. Additionally, we give polynomialsize SBC⁻ proofs of the pigeonhole principle, which separates SBC⁻ from GER⁻ by a previously known lower bound. These results also separate the three systems from BC⁻ since they all simulate it. We thus give an almost complete picture of their relative strengths.more » « less

Tauman Kalai, Yael (Ed.)The edit distance between strings classically assigns unit cost to every character insertion, deletion, and substitution, whereas the Hamming distance only allows substitutions. In many reallife scenarios, insertions and deletions (abbreviated indels) appear frequently but significantly less so than substitutions. To model this, we consider substitutions being cheaper than indels, with cost 1/a for a parameter a ≥ 1. This basic variant, denoted ED_a, bridges classical edit distance (a = 1) with Hamming distance (a → ∞), leading to interesting algorithmic challenges: Does the time complexity of computing ED_a interpolate between that of Hamming distance (linear time) and edit distance (quadratic time)? What about approximating ED_a? We first present a simple deterministic exact algorithm for ED_a and further prove that it is nearoptimal assuming the Orthogonal Vectors Conjecture. Our main result is a randomized algorithm computing a (1+ε)approximation of ED_a(X,Y), given strings X,Y of total length n and a bound k ≥ ED_a(X,Y). For simplicity, let us focus on k ≥ 1 and a constant ε > 0; then, our algorithm takes Õ(n/a + ak³) time. Unless a = Õ(1), in which case ED_a resembles the standard edit distance, and for the most interesting regime of small enough k, this running time is sublinear in n. We also consider a very natural version that asks to find a (k_I, k_S)alignment, i.e., an alignment with at most k_I indels and k_S substitutions. In this setting, we give an exact algorithm and, more importantly, an Õ((nk_I)/k_S + k_S k_I³)time (1,1+ε)bicriteria approximation algorithm. The latter solution is based on the techniques we develop for ED_a for a = Θ(k_S/k_I), and its running time is again sublinear in n whenever k_I ≪ k_S and the overall distance is small enough. These bounds are in stark contrast to unitcost edit distance, where stateoftheart algorithms are far from achieving (1+ε)approximation in sublinear time, even for a favorable choice of k.more » « less

Tauman Kalai, Yael (Ed.)We study unitary property testing, where a quantum algorithm is given query access to a blackbox unitary and has to decide whether it satisfies some property. In addition to containing the standard quantum query complexity model (where the unitary encodes a binary string) as a special case, this model contains "inherently quantum"; problems that have no classical analogue. Characterizing the query complexity of these problems requires new algorithmic techniques and lower bound methods. Our main contribution is a generalized polynomial method for unitary property testing problems. By leveraging connections with invariant theory, we apply this method to obtain lower bounds on problems such as determining recurrence times of unitaries, approximating the dimension of a marked subspace, and approximating the entanglement entropy of a marked state. We also present a unitary property testingbased approach towards an oracle separation between QMA and QMA(2), a long standing question in quantum complexity theory.more » « less

Tauman Kalai, Yael (Ed.)In 2003, Cohn and Umans proposed a grouptheoretic approach to bounding the exponent of matrix multiplication. Previous work within this approach ruled out certain families of groups as a route to obtaining ω = 2, while other families of groups remain potentially viable. In this paper we turn our attention to matrix groups, whose usefulness within this framework was relatively unexplored. We first show that groups of Lie type cannot prove ω = 2 within the grouptheoretic approach. This is based on a representationtheoretic argument that identifies the secondsmallest dimension of an irreducible representation of a group as a key parameter that determines its viability in this framework. Our proof builds on Gowers' result concerning productfree sets in quasirandom groups. We then give another barrier that rules out certain natural matrix group constructions that make use of subgroups that are far from being selfnormalizing. Our barrier results leave open several natural paths to obtain ω = 2 via matrix groups. To explore these routes we propose working in the continuous setting of Lie groups, in which we develop an analogous theory. Obtaining the analogue of ω = 2 in this potentially easier setting is a key challenge that represents an intermediate goal short of actually proving ω = 2. We give two constructions in the continuous setting, each of which evades one of our two barriers.more » « less


Tauman Kalai, Yael (Ed.)Over the last two decades, a significant line of work in theoretical algorithms has made progress in solving linear systems of the form 𝐋𝐱 = 𝐛, where 𝐋 is the Laplacian matrix of a weighted graph with weights w(i,j) > 0 on the edges. The solution 𝐱 of the linear system can be interpreted as the potentials of an electrical flow in which the resistance on edge (i,j) is 1/w(i,j). Kelner, Orrechia, Sidford, and Zhu [Kelner et al., 2013] give a combinatorial, nearlinear time algorithm that maintains the Kirchoff Current Law, and gradually enforces the Kirchoff Potential Law by updating flows around cycles (cycle toggling). In this paper, we consider a dual version of the algorithm that maintains the Kirchoff Potential Law, and gradually enforces the Kirchoff Current Law by cut toggling: each iteration updates all potentials on one side of a fundamental cut of a spanning tree by the same amount. We prove that this dual algorithm also runs in a nearlinear number of iterations. We show, however, that if we abstract cut toggling as a natural data structure problem, this problem can be reduced to the online vectormatrixvector problem (OMv), which has been conjectured to be difficult for dynamic algorithms [Henzinger et al., 2015]. The conjecture implies that the data structure does not have an O(n^{1ε}) time algorithm for any ε > 0, and thus a straightforward implementation of the cuttoggling algorithm requires essentially linear time per iteration. To circumvent the lower bound, we batch update steps, and perform them simultaneously instead of sequentially. An appropriate choice of batching leads to an Õ(m^{1.5}) time cuttoggling algorithm for solving Laplacian systems. Furthermore, we show that if we sparsify the graph and call our algorithm recursively on the Laplacian system implied by batching and sparsifying, we can reduce the running time to O(m^{1 + ε}) for any ε > 0. Thus, the dual cuttoggling algorithm can achieve (almost) the same running time as its primal cycletoggling counterpart.more » « less

Tauman Kalai, Yael ; Smith, Adam D ; Wichs, Daniel (Ed.)Motivated by the desire to bridge the utility gap between local and trusted curator models of differential privacy for practical applications, we initiate the theoretical study of a hybrid model introduced by "Blender" [Avent et al., USENIX Security '17], in which differentially private protocols of n agents that work in the localmodel are assisted by a differentially private curator that has access to the data of m additional users. We focus on the regime where m ≪ n and study the new capabilities of this (m,n)hybrid model. We show that, despite the fact that the hybrid model adds no significant new capabilities for the basic task of simple hypothesistesting, there are many other tasks (under a wide range of parameters) that can be solved in the hybrid model yet cannot be solved either by the curator or by the localusers separately. Moreover, we exhibit additional tasks where at least one round of interaction between the curator and the localusers is necessary  namely, no hybrid model protocol without such interaction can solve these tasks. Taken together, our results show that the combination of the local model with a small curator can become part of a promising toolkit for designing and implementing differential privacy.more » « less