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  1. Ranzato, M. ; Beygelzimer, A. ; Dauphin, Y. ; Liang, P.S. ; Vaughan, J. Wortman (Ed.)
  2. Ranzato, M. ; Beygelzimer, A ; Dauphin, Y. ; Liang, P.S. ; Vaughan, J. Wortman (Ed.)
  3. Ranzato, M. ; Beygelzimer, A. ; Dauphin, Y. ; Liang, P.S. ; Vaughan, J. Wortman (Ed.)
  4. Ranzato, M. ; Beygelzimer, A. ; Dauphin, Y. ; Liang, P.S. ; Vaughan, J. Wortman (Ed.)
  5. Ranzato, M. ; Beygelzimer, A. ; Dauphin, Y. ; Liang, P.S. ; Vaughan, J. Wortman (Ed.)
    The accuracy of simulation-based forecasting in chaotic systems is heavily dependent on high-quality estimates of the system state at the beginning of the forecast. Data assimilation methods are used to infer these initial conditions by systematically combining noisy, incomplete observations and numerical models of system dynamics to produce highly effective estimation schemes. We introduce a self-supervised framework, which we call \textit{amortized assimilation}, for learning to assimilate in dynamical systems. Amortized assimilation combines deep learning-based denoising with differentiable simulation, using independent neural networks to assimilate specific observation types while connecting the gradient flow between these sub-tasks with differentiable simulation and shared recurrent memory. This hybrid architecture admits a self-supervised training objective which is minimized by an unbiased estimator of the true system state even in the presence of only noisy training data. Numerical experiments across several chaotic benchmark systems highlight the improved effectiveness of our approach compared to widely-used data assimilation methods. 
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  6. Ranzato, M. ; Beygelzimer, A. ; Dauphin, Y. ; Liang, P.S. ; Vaughan, J. Wortman (Ed.)
  7. Ranzato, M. ; Beygelzimer, A. ; Dauphin, Y. ; Liang, P.S. ; Vaughan, J. Wortman (Ed.)
    The prevalence of graph-based data has spurred the rapid development of graph neural networks (GNNs) and related machine learning algorithms. Yet, despite the many datasets naturally modeled as directed graphs, including citation, website, and traffic networks, the vast majority of this research focuses on undirected graphs. In this paper, we propose MagNet, a GNN for directed graphs based on a complex Hermitian matrix known as the magnetic Laplacian. This matrix encodes undirected geometric structure in the magnitude of its entries and directional information in their phase. A charge parameter attunes spectral information to variation among directed cycles. We apply our network to a variety of directed graph node classification and link prediction tasks showing that MagNet performs well on all tasks and that its performance exceeds all other methods on a majority of such tasks. The underlying principles of MagNet are such that it can be adapted to other GNN architectures. 
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