skip to main content

Title: Open-jet boundary-layer processes for aerodynamic testing of low-rise buildings
Investigations on simulated near-surface atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) in an open-jet facility are carried out by conducting experimental tests on small-scale models of low-rise buildings. The objectives of the current study are: (1) to determine the optimal location of test buildings from the exit of the open-jet facility, and (2) to investigate the scale effect on the aerodynamic pressure characteristics. Based on the results, the newly built open-jet facility is well capable of producing mean wind speed and turbulence profiles representing open-terrain conditions. The results show that the proximity of the test model to the open-jet governs the length of the separation bubble as well as the peak roof pressures. However, test models placed at a horizontal distance of 2.5H (H is height of the wind field) from the exit of the open-jet, with a width that is half the width of the wind field and a length of 1H, have consistent mean and peak pressure coefficients when compared with available results from wind tunnel testing. In addition, testing models with as large as 16% blockage ratio is feasible within the open-jet facility. This reveals the importance of open-jet facilities as a robust tool to alleviate the scale restrictions involved in physical investigations of flow pattern around civil engineering structures. The results and findings of this study are useful for putting forward recommendations and guidelines for testing protocols at open-jet facilities, eventually helping the progress of enhanced standard provisions on the design of low-rise buildings for wind.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
Author(s) / Creator(s):
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Wind and Structures
Page Range / eLocation ID:
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Thunderstorm downburst winds are a major cause of severe damage to buildings and other infrastructure. The initiative of the NSF-NHERI Wall of Wind (WOW) Experimental Facility to design and develop a downburst simulator was established to open new horizons for multi-hazard engineering research by extending the current capabilities of the facility to enable the simulation of non-synoptic winds. Five different downburst simulator designs have been tested in the 1:15 small-scale replica of the WOW to identify the optimal design. The design concepts tested herein considered both the 2-D impinging jet and the 2-D wall jet simulation methods. The basic design methodology consists of transforming the available atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) wind simulator into downburst winds by adding an external modification device to the exit of the flow management box. A flow characterization comparison among the five contending downburst simulators, along with comparisons to real downbursts and previous literature findings, has been conducted. The study on the effect of surface roughness length on the height of the peak wind velocity showed that the implementation of a 2-D plane wall jet enables large-scale outflows (higher peak velocity height) with high Reynold numbers, which is advantageous in terms of reducing scaling effects. In general, the current research work showed that four downburst simulation methods were suitable for adoption; however, only one downburst simulator was recommended based on the feasibility of construction in the facility. The chosen downburst simulator consisted of a two louver slat system near the bottom, with a blockage at the top. This configuration enables producing a large rolling vortex passing through the testing section, which would serve adequately in the further study of turbulent flow characterization and testing of larger scale test models. 
    more » « less

    We present investigations of rapidly rotating convection in a thick spherical shell geometry relevant to planetary cores, comparing results from quasi-geostrophic (QG), 3-D and hybrid QG-3D models. The 170 reported calculations span Ekman numbers, Ek, between 10−4 and 10−10, Rayleigh numbers, Ra, between 2 and 150 times supercritical and Prandtl numbers, Pr, between 10 and 10−2. The default boundary conditions are no-slip at both the ICB and the CMB for the velocity field, with fixed temperatures at the ICB and the CMB. Cases driven by both homogeneous and inhomogeneous CMB heat flux patterns are also explored, the latter including lateral variations, as measured by Q*, the peak-to-peak amplitude of the pattern divided by its mean, taking values up to 5. The QG model is based on the open-source pizza code. We extend this in a hybrid approach to include the temperature field on a 3-D grid. In general, we find convection is dominated by zonal jets at mid-depths in the shell, with thermal Rossby waves prominent close to the outer boundary when the driving is weaker. For the thick spherical shell geometry studied here the hybrid method is best suited for studying convection at modest forcing, $Ra \le 10 \, Ra_c$ when Pr = 1, and departs from the 3-D model results at higher Ra, displaying systematically lower heat transport characterized by lower Nusselt and Reynolds numbers. We find that the lack of equatorially-antisymmetric motions and z-correlations between temperature and velocity in the buoyancy force contributes to the weaker flows in the hybrid formulation. On the other hand, the QG models yield broadly similar results to the 3-D models, for the specific aspect ratio and range of Rayleigh numbers explored here. We cannot point to major disagreements between these two data sets at Pr ≥ 0.1, with the QG model effectively more strongly driven than the hybrid case due to its cylindrically averaged thermal boundary conditions. When Pr is decreased, the range of agreement between the hybrid and 3-D models expands, for example up to $Ra \le 15 \, Ra_c$ at Pr = 0.1, indicating the hybrid method may be better suited to study convection in the low Pr regime. We thus observe a transition between two regimes: (i) at Pr ≥ 0.1 the QG and 3-D models agree in the studied range of Ra/Rac while the hybrid model fails when $Ra\gt 15\, Ra_c$ and (ii) at Pr = 0.01 the QG and 3-D models disagree for $Ra\gt 10\, Ra_c$ while the hybrid and 3-D models agree fairly well up to $Ra \sim 20\, Ra_c$. Models that include laterally varying heat flux at the outer boundary reproduce regional convection patterns that compare well with those found in similarly forced 3-D models. Previously proposed scaling laws for rapidly rotating convection are tested; our simulations are overall well described by a triple balance between Coriolis, inertia and Archimedean forces with the length-scale of the convection following the diffusion-free Rhines-scaling. The magnitude of Pr affects the number and the size of the jets with larger structures obtained at lower Pr. Higher velocities and lower heat transport are seen on decreasing Pr with the scaling behaviour of the convective velocity displaying a strong dependence on Pr. This study is an intermediate step towards a hybrid model of core convection also including 3-D magnetic effects.

    more » « less
  3. Abstract

    The oceanographic response and atmospheric forcing associated with downwelling along the Alaskan Beaufort Sea shelf/slope is described using mooring data collected from August 2002 to September 2004, along with meteorological time series, satellite data, and reanalysis fields. In total, 55 downwelling events are identified with peak occurrence in July and August. Downwelling is initiated by cyclonic low‐pressure systems displacing the Beaufort High and driving westerly winds over the region. The shelfbreak jet responds by accelerating to the east, followed by a depression of isopycnals along the outer shelf and slope. The storms last 3.25 ± 1.80 days, at which point conditions relax toward their mean state. To determine the effect of sea ice on the oceanographic response, the storms are classified into four ice seasons: open water, partial ice, full ice, and fast ice (immobile). For a given wind strength, the largest response occurs during partial ice cover, while the most subdued response occurs in the fast ice season. Over the two‐year study period, the winds were strongest during the open water season; thus, the shelfbreak jet intensified the most during this period and the cross‐stream Ekman flow was largest. During downwelling, the cold water fluxed off the shelf ventilates the upper halocline of the Canada Basin. The storms approach the Beaufort Sea along three distinct pathways: a northerly route from the high Arctic, a westerly route from northern Siberia, and a southerly route from south of Bering Strait. Differences in the vertical structure of the storms are presented as well.

    more » « less
  4. ASME (Ed.)
    Research was conducted to determine combustion characteristics such as: ignition delay (ID), combustion delay (CD), combustion phasing (CA 50), combustion duration, derived cetane number (DCN) and ringing intensity (RI) of F24, for its compatibility in Common Rail Direct Injection (CRDI) compression ignition (CI) engine. The first part of this study is investigating the performance of Jet-A, F24, and ultra-low sulfur diesel #2 (ULSD) using a constant volume combustion chamber (CVCC) followed by experiments in a fired CRDI research engine. Investigations of the spray atomization and droplet size distribution of the neat fuels were conducted with a Malvern Mie scattering He-Ne laser. It was found that the average Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) for Jet-A and F24 are similar, with both fuels SMD droplet range between 25–29 micrometers. Meanwhile, ULSD was found to have a larger SMD particle size in the range of 34–40 micrometers. It was observed during the study, utilizing the CVCC, that the ID and CD for neat ULSD and Jet-A are nearly identical while the combustion of F24 is delayed. F24 was found to have longer durations of both ID and CD by approx. 0.5 ms. This results in a lower DCN for the fuel of 43.5, whereas ULSD and Jet-A have DCNs of 45 and 47 respectively. The peak AHRR for ULSD and Jet-A are nearly identical, whereas F24 has a peak magnitude of approx. 20% lower than ULSD and Jet-A. It was found that both aviation fuels had significantly fewer ringing events occurring after peak high temperature heat release (HTHR), a trend also observed in the CRDI research engine. Neat F24, Jet-A and ULSD were researched in the experimental engine at the same thermodynamic parameters: 5 bar indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP), 50°C (supercharged and EGR) inlet air temperature, 1500 RPM, start of injection (SOI) 16°BTDC, and 800 bar of fuel rail injection pressure as the baseline parameters in order to observe their ignition behavior, low temperature heat release, combustion phasing, and combustion duration. It was found that the ignition delay of F24 and Jet-A was greater than ULSD, approx. 5% for both aviation fuels. This ignition delay also affected the combustion phasing, or CA 50, of the aviation fuels. The CA 50 of the aviation fuels was delayed by approx. 2% compared to ULSD. Jet-A had a nearly identical combustion duration compared to ULSD, however F24 had an extended combustion duration which was approx. 3% longer than that of ULSD and Jet-A. It was discovered with the accumulations of these delays in ID, CD, CA50, that the RI of the aviation fuels were reduced. F24 was discovered to have more delays, and the RI correlates with these results having a 70% reduction in RI compared to ULSD. 
    more » « less
  5. Conventional lateral force-resisting systems can provide a stable, ductile response but also experience significant inelastic demands, rendering repairs impractical or uneconomical. Thus, there is a need for novel structural systems that protect structural and nonstructural components to reduce post-earthquake repairs and downtime. A U.S.-Japan research team – including three U.S. universities, two Japanese universities, and two major experimental research labs – is developing a structural solution to reduce peak drift and acceleration demands, thereby protecting buildings, their contents, and occupants during major earthquakes. The primary components of the system are: (1) steel base moment-resisting frames designed and detailed to behave in the inelastic range and dissipate energy, (2) stiff and strong elastic spines designed to remain essentially elastic to redistribute seismic demands more uniformly over the building height, and (3) force-limiting connections (FLC) that connect the frame to the spines to provide a yielding mechanism that limits acceleration demands. This economical earthquake-resilient system is intended to be used in essential facilities, such as hospitals, where damage to the buildings and contents and occupant injuries must be prevented and where continuity of operation is imperative. The system was recently tested at full scale at the E-Defense shake-table facility in Miki, Japan. This paper provides an overview of pre-test numerical simulations, shake-table test setup and instrumentation, and preliminary test results. 
    more » « less