- Award ID(s):
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Date Published:
- Journal Name:
- Wind and Structures
- Page Range / eLocation ID:
- Medium: X
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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Thunderstorm downburst winds are a major cause of severe damage to buildings and other infrastructure. The initiative of the NSF-NHERI Wall of Wind (WOW) Experimental Facility to design and develop a downburst simulator was established to open new horizons for multi-hazard engineering research by extending the current capabilities of the facility to enable the simulation of non-synoptic winds. Five different downburst simulator designs have been tested in the 1:15 small-scale replica of the WOW to identify the optimal design. The design concepts tested herein considered both the 2-D impinging jet and the 2-D wall jet simulation methods. The basic design methodology consists of transforming the available atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) wind simulator into downburst winds by adding an external modification device to the exit of the flow management box. A flow characterization comparison among the five contending downburst simulators, along with comparisons to real downbursts and previous literature findings, has been conducted. The study on the effect of surface roughness length on the height of the peak wind velocity showed that the implementation of a 2-D plane wall jet enables large-scale outflows (higher peak velocity height) with high Reynold numbers, which is advantageous in terms of reducing scaling effects. In general, the current research work showed that four downburst simulation methods were suitable for adoption; however, only one downburst simulator was recommended based on the feasibility of construction in the facility. The chosen downburst simulator consisted of a two louver slat system near the bottom, with a blockage at the top. This configuration enables producing a large rolling vortex passing through the testing section, which would serve adequately in the further study of turbulent flow characterization and testing of larger scale test models.more » « less
We present investigations of rapidly rotating convection in a thick spherical shell geometry relevant to planetary cores, comparing results from quasi-geostrophic (QG), 3-D and hybrid QG-3D models. The 170 reported calculations span Ekman numbers, Ek, between 10−4 and 10−10, Rayleigh numbers, Ra, between 2 and 150 times supercritical and Prandtl numbers, Pr, between 10 and 10−2. The default boundary conditions are no-slip at both the ICB and the CMB for the velocity field, with fixed temperatures at the ICB and the CMB. Cases driven by both homogeneous and inhomogeneous CMB heat flux patterns are also explored, the latter including lateral variations, as measured by Q*, the peak-to-peak amplitude of the pattern divided by its mean, taking values up to 5. The QG model is based on the open-source pizza code. We extend this in a hybrid approach to include the temperature field on a 3-D grid. In general, we find convection is dominated by zonal jets at mid-depths in the shell, with thermal Rossby waves prominent close to the outer boundary when the driving is weaker. For the thick spherical shell geometry studied here the hybrid method is best suited for studying convection at modest forcing, $Ra \le 10 \, Ra_c$ when Pr = 1, and departs from the 3-D model results at higher Ra, displaying systematically lower heat transport characterized by lower Nusselt and Reynolds numbers. We find that the lack of equatorially-antisymmetric motions and z-correlations between temperature and velocity in the buoyancy force contributes to the weaker flows in the hybrid formulation. On the other hand, the QG models yield broadly similar results to the 3-D models, for the specific aspect ratio and range of Rayleigh numbers explored here. We cannot point to major disagreements between these two data sets at Pr ≥ 0.1, with the QG model effectively more strongly driven than the hybrid case due to its cylindrically averaged thermal boundary conditions. When Pr is decreased, the range of agreement between the hybrid and 3-D models expands, for example up to $Ra \le 15 \, Ra_c$ at Pr = 0.1, indicating the hybrid method may be better suited to study convection in the low Pr regime. We thus observe a transition between two regimes: (i) at Pr ≥ 0.1 the QG and 3-D models agree in the studied range of Ra/Rac while the hybrid model fails when $Ra\gt 15\, Ra_c$ and (ii) at Pr = 0.01 the QG and 3-D models disagree for $Ra\gt 10\, Ra_c$ while the hybrid and 3-D models agree fairly well up to $Ra \sim 20\, Ra_c$. Models that include laterally varying heat flux at the outer boundary reproduce regional convection patterns that compare well with those found in similarly forced 3-D models. Previously proposed scaling laws for rapidly rotating convection are tested; our simulations are overall well described by a triple balance between Coriolis, inertia and Archimedean forces with the length-scale of the convection following the diffusion-free Rhines-scaling. The magnitude of Pr affects the number and the size of the jets with larger structures obtained at lower Pr. Higher velocities and lower heat transport are seen on decreasing Pr with the scaling behaviour of the convective velocity displaying a strong dependence on Pr. This study is an intermediate step towards a hybrid model of core convection also including 3-D magnetic effects.
The oceanographic response and atmospheric forcing associated with downwelling along the Alaskan Beaufort Sea shelf/slope is described using mooring data collected from August 2002 to September 2004, along with meteorological time series, satellite data, and reanalysis fields. In total, 55 downwelling events are identified with peak occurrence in July and August. Downwelling is initiated by cyclonic low‐pressure systems displacing the Beaufort High and driving westerly winds over the region. The shelfbreak jet responds by accelerating to the east, followed by a depression of isopycnals along the outer shelf and slope. The storms last 3.25 ± 1.80 days, at which point conditions relax toward their mean state. To determine the effect of sea ice on the oceanographic response, the storms are classified into four ice seasons: open water, partial ice, full ice, and fast ice (immobile). For a given wind strength, the largest response occurs during partial ice cover, while the most subdued response occurs in the fast ice season. Over the two‐year study period, the winds were strongest during the open water season; thus, the shelfbreak jet intensified the most during this period and the cross‐stream Ekman flow was largest. During downwelling, the cold water fluxed off the shelf ventilates the upper halocline of the Canada Basin. The storms approach the Beaufort Sea along three distinct pathways: a northerly route from the high Arctic, a westerly route from northern Siberia, and a southerly route from south of Bering Strait. Differences in the vertical structure of the storms are presented as well.
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Conventional lateral force-resisting systems can provide a stable, ductile response but also experience significant inelastic demands, rendering repairs impractical or uneconomical. Thus, there is a need for novel structural systems that protect structural and nonstructural components to reduce post-earthquake repairs and downtime. A U.S.-Japan research team – including three U.S. universities, two Japanese universities, and two major experimental research labs – is developing a structural solution to reduce peak drift and acceleration demands, thereby protecting buildings, their contents, and occupants during major earthquakes. The primary components of the system are: (1) steel base moment-resisting frames designed and detailed to behave in the inelastic range and dissipate energy, (2) stiff and strong elastic spines designed to remain essentially elastic to redistribute seismic demands more uniformly over the building height, and (3) force-limiting connections (FLC) that connect the frame to the spines to provide a yielding mechanism that limits acceleration demands. This economical earthquake-resilient system is intended to be used in essential facilities, such as hospitals, where damage to the buildings and contents and occupant injuries must be prevented and where continuity of operation is imperative. The system was recently tested at full scale at the E-Defense shake-table facility in Miki, Japan. This paper provides an overview of pre-test numerical simulations, shake-table test setup and instrumentation, and preliminary test results.more » « less