skip to main content

Title: High Accuracy Underwater Photogrammetric Surveying.
The evolution of underwater photogrammetry allows to realize 3D models of submerged object and structures throughout the use of rapid and efficient procedures either in terms of data acquisition and data processing. These procedures are based on solutions that are applied using natural control points, signalized markers and tie points; the most common algorithms are based on Structure from Motion (SfM) approach. The limit of these applications is sometimes due to the final accuracy, especially when the goal is a centimeter level of accuracy. This accuracy should be necessary when dealing with a survey devoted to deformation control purposes. An example is the underwater photogrammetry for the determination of coral growth; it is effectively a movement or a deformation detection issue where the geometric change is almost at centimeter or few centimeters accuracy level. When dealing with deformation control applications, a geodetic network is essential to realize a stable and unambiguous reference frame through the accurate and permanent installation of Ground Control Points (GCPs). Such a network, indeed, permits a robust reference frame for the georeferencing of images blocks in the different époques of data acquisition. Therefore, the comparison among subsequent photogrammetric restitutions is based on homogeneous 3D models that more » have been oriented in the same absolute reference system. The photogrammetric survey is based on a methodological approach especially adapted to underwater biometry (like coral growth determination) and to underwater archaeology. The approach is suitable both for modeling objects of relatively reduced dimensions and for structures with a length of ten meters or more, such as coral barriers, wrecks and long walls. The paper describes underwater photogrammetric surveys on sites at different extensions, the geodetic GCPs reference network installation and measurements (distance and elevation difference observations) as well as preliminary results of the network adjustment. A brief description of image acquisition at a different scales and the resulting 3D model of first campaign are also shown. « less
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Award ID(s):
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
3rd IMEKO International Conference on Metrology for Archeology and Cultural Heritage
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Underwater photogrammetry is increasingly being used by marine ecologists because of its ability to produce accurate, spatially detailed, non-destructive measurements of benthic communities, coupled with affordability and ease of use. However, independent quality control, rigorous imaging system set-up, optimal geometry design and a strict modeling of the imaging process are essential to achieving a high degree of measurable accuracy and resolution. If a proper photogrammetric approach that enables the formal description of the propagation of measurement error and modeling uncertainties is not undertaken, statements regarding the statistical significance of the results are limited. In this paper, we tackle these critical topics, based on the experience gained in the Moorea Island Digital Ecosystem Avatar (IDEA) project, where we have developed a rigorous underwater photogrammetric pipeline for coral reef monitoring and change detection. Here, we discuss the need for a permanent, underwater geodetic network, which serves to define a temporally stable reference datum and a check for the time series of photogrammetrically derived three-dimensional (3D) models of the reef structure. We present a methodology to evaluate the suitability of several underwater camera systems for photogrammetric and multi-temporal monitoring purposes and stress the importance of camera network geometry to minimize the deformations ofmore »photogrammetrically derived 3D reef models. Finally, we incorporate the measurement and modeling uncertainties of the full photogrammetric process into a simple and flexible framework for detecting statistically significant changes among a time series of models.« less
  2. Creating 3-dimensional (3D) models of underwater scenes has become a common approach for monitoring coral reef changes and its structural complexity. Also in underwater archeology, 3D models are often created using underwater optical imagery. In this paper, we focus on the aspect of detecting small changes in the coral reef using a multi-temporal photogrammetric modelling approach, which requires a high quality control network. We show that the quality of a good geodetic network limits the direct change detection, i.e., without any further registration process. As the photogrammetric accuracy is expected to exceed the geodetic network accuracy by at least one order of magnitude, we suggest to do a fine registration based on a number of signalized points. This work is part of the Moorea Island Digital Ecosystem Avatar (IDEA) project that has been initiated in 2013 by a group of international researchers (
  3. Abstract. Underwater photogrammetry is a well-established technique for measuring and modelling the subaquatic environment in fields ranging from archaeology to marine ecology. While for simple tasks the acquisition and processing of images have become straightforward, applications requiring relative accuracy better then 1:1000 are still considered challenging. This study focuses on the metric evaluation of different off-the-shelf camera systems for making high resolution and high accuracy measurements of coral reefs monitoring through time, where the variations to be measured are in the range of a few centimeters per year. High quality and low-cost systems (reflex and mirrorless vs action cameras, i.e. GoPro) with multiple lenses (prime and zoom), different fields of views (from fisheye to moderate wide angle), pressure housing materials and lens ports (dome and flat) are compared. Tests are repeated at different camera to object distances to investigate distance dependent induced errors and assess the accuracy of the photogrammetrically derived models. An extensive statistical analysis of the different systems is performed and comparisons against reference control point measured through a high precision underwater geodetic network are reported.

  4. Photogrammetric data collection and analysis techniques are increasingly being used for geotechnical characterization of rock masses, and rock slopes, in particular. There is a growing selection of software packages that can create georeferenced digital 3D models from a photoset and control points. Although each software package is able to create the desired point clouds, different techniques are used to produce them. For a geotechnical investigation, it is important to understand the accuracy of the software being used in order to have confidence in the reliability of the digital 3D models that are created. In a study similar to one conducted in conjunction with the GoldenRocks ARMA conference in 2006 (and described in Tonon and Kottenstette, 2006), a rock outcrop was selected to be the location for a digital photogrammetry model comparison. Two sets of control points were surveyed on the rock outcrop; one set was provided for the creation of each model, and one set was used to evaluate the accuracy of the model by measuring the difference in the location of the point in the model and in the survey data. An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) was used to collect video footage of the site. A set of stillmore »frames were extracted from the video that contain overlapping images of the rock outcrop. The set of image files was used to create models with the following photogrammetry software packages: Bentley ContextCapture, Agisoft PhotoScan, and Pix4Dmapper. The accuracy of each of the software packages was compared by quantifying the error in the control points and check points between the model and the field survey. As this comparison is intended to provide guidance for selecting software tools to aid in rock mass characterization, other features were evaluated as well, including user-friendliness. Understanding the accuracy of digital photogrammetry software is critical for justifying the use of such models in a geotechnical investigation. The advantages of these models are numerous but of little value if the data provided by the models do not adequately represent the field conditions. Bentley ContextCapture was found to have the least error in the control points and Pix4Dmapper was found to have the least error in the check points. The Bentley ContextCapture model also had the highest resolution, closely followed by the Pix4Dmapper model. Based on these qualities and several others including the general usability, Bentley ContextCapture creates the most effective models for potential geotechnical investigations.« less
  5. Abstract Although modern global geometric reference frames (GRFs) such as the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF) can be used anywhere on Earth, regional reference frames (RRFs) are still used to densify geodetic control and optimize solutions for continental-scale areas and national purposes. Such RRFs can be formed by densifying the ITRF, utilizing GPS / GNSS stations common to both the ITRF and the RRF. It is possible to attach a RRF to a GRF by ensuring that some or all of the coefficients of the trajectory models in the RRF are ‘inherited’ from the trajectory models that define the GRF. This can be done on an epoch-by-epoch basis, or (our preference) via transformations that operate simultaneously in space and time. This paper documents inconsistencies in the densification of ITRF that arise when the common stations’ trajectory models ignore periodic displacements. This results in periodic coordinate biases in the RRF. We describe a generalized procedure to minimize this inconsistency when realizing any RRF aligned to the ITRF or any other ‘primary’ frame. We show the method used to realize the Argentine national frame Posiciones Geodésicas Argentinas (POSGAR) and discuss our results. Discrepancies in the periodic motion amplitudes in the vertical weremore »reduced from 4 mm to less than 1 mm for multiple stations after applying our technique. We also propose adopting object-oriented programming terminology to describe the relationship between different reference frames, such as a regional and a global frame. This terminology assists in describing and understanding the hierarchy in geodetic reference frames.« less