In this paper, we propose MRIMA, as a novel MRAM-based In-Memory Accelerator for non-volatile, flexible, and efficient in-memory computing. MRIMA transforms current Spin Transfer Torque Magnetic Random Access Memory (STT-MRAM) arrays to massively parallel computational units capable of working as both non-volatile memory and in-memory logic. Instead of integrating complex logic units in cost-sensitive memory, MRIMA exploits hardware-friendly bit-line computing methods to implement complete Boolean logic functions between operands within a memory array in a single clock cycle, overcoming the multi-cycle logic issue in contemporary Processing-In-Memory (PIM) platforms. We present practical case studies to demonstrate MRIMA’s acceleration for binary-weight and low bit-width Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) as well as data encryption. Our device-to-architecture co-simulation results on CNN acceleration demonstrate that MRIMA can obtain 1.7× better energy-efficiency and 11.2× speed-up compared to ASICs, and, 1.8× better energy-efficiency and 2.4× speed-up over the best DRAM-based PIM solutions. As an AES in-memory encryption engine, MRIMA shows 77% and 21% lower energy consumption compared to CMOS-ASIC and recent domain wall-based design, respectively.
Design and Evaluation of a Spintronic In-Memory Processing Platform for Non-Volatile Data Encryption
In this paper, we propose an energy-efficient reconfigurable platform for in-memory processing based on novel 4-terminal spin Hall effect-driven domain wall motion devices that could be employed as both non-volatile memory cell and in-memory logic unit. The proposed designs lead to unity of memory and logic. The device to system level simulation results show that, with 28% area increase in memory structure, the proposed in-memory processing platform achieves a write energy ~15.6 fJ/bit with 79% reduction compared to that of SOT-MRAM counterpart while keeping the identical 1ns writing speed. In addition, the proposed in-memory logic scheme improves the operating energy by 61.3%, as compared with the recent non-volatile in-memory logic designs. An extensive reliability analysis is also performed over the proposed circuits. We employ Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) algorithm as a case study to elucidate the efficiency of the proposed platform at application level. Simulation results exhibit that the proposed platform can show up to 75.7% and 30.4% lower energy consumption compared to CMOS-ASIC and recent pipelined domain wall (DW) AES implementations, respectively. In addition, the AES Energy-Delay Product (EDP) can show 15.1% and 6.1% improvements compared to the DW-AES and CMOS-ASIC implementations, respectively.
- Award ID(s):
- Publication Date:
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Journal Name:
- IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
- Page Range or eLocation-ID:
- 1 to 1
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
More Like this
PIMA-logic: a novel processing-in-memory architecture for highly flexible and energy-efficient logic computationIn this paper, we propose PIMA-Logic, as a novel Processing-in-Memory Architecture for highly flexible and efficient Logic computation. Insteadof integrating complex logic units in cost-sensitive memory, PIMA-Logic exploits a hardware-friendly approach to implement Boolean logic functions between operands either located in the same row or the same column within entire memory arrays. Furthermore, it can efficiently process more complex logic functions between multiple operands to further reduce the latency and power-hungry data movement. The proposed architecture is developed based on Spin Orbit Torque Magnetic Random Access Memory (SOT-MRAM) array and it can simultaneously work as a non-volatile memory and a reconfigurable in-memory logic. The device-to-architecture co-simulation results show that PIMA-Logic can achieve up to 56% and 31.6% improvements with respect to overall energy and delay on combinational logic benchmarks compared to recent Pinatubo architecture. We further implement an in-memory data encryption engine based on PIMA-Logic as a case study. With AES application, it shows 77.2% and 21% lower energy consumption compared to CMOS-ASIC and recent RIMPA implementation, respectively.
In this paper we propose a Highly Flexible InMemory (HieIM) computing platform using STT MRAM, which can be leveraged to implement Boolean logic functions without sacrificing memory functionality. It could pre-process data within memory to further reduce power hungry long distance communication between memory and processing units as in Von-Neumann computing system. HieIM can implement all the Boolean logic functions (AND/NAND, OR/NOR, XOR/XNOR) between any two cells in the same memory array, thus overcoming the `operand locality' problem in contemporary in-memory computing platform designs. To investigate the performance of HieIM, we test in-memory bulk bit-wise Boolean logic operations using different vector datasets, which shows ~ 8x energy saving and ~ 5x speedup compared to recent DRAM based in-memory computing platform. We further implement an in-memory data encryption engine design based on HieIM as another case study. With AES algorithm, it shows 51.5% and 68.9% lower energy consumption compared to CMOS-ASIC and CMOL based implementations, respectively.
Latest algorithmic development has brought competitive classification accuracy for neural networks despite constraining the network parameters to ternary or binary representations. These findings show significant optimization opportunities to replace computationally-intensive convolution operations (based on multiplication) with more efficient and less complex operations such as addition. In hardware implementation domain, processing-in-memory architecture is becoming a promising solution to alleviate enormous energy-hungry data communication between memory and processing units, bringing considerable improvement for system performance and energy efficiency while running such large networks. In this paper, we review several of our recent works regarding Processing-in-Memory (PIM) accelerator based on Magnetic Random Access Memory computational sub-arrays to accelerate the inference mode of quantized neural networks using digital non-volatile memory rather than using analog crossbar operation. In this way, we investigate the performance of two distinct in-memory addition schemes compared to other digital methods based on processing-in-DRAM/GPU/ASIC design to tackle DNN power and memory wall bottleneck.
Promising for digital signal processing applications, approximate computing has been extensively considered to tradeoff limited accuracy for improvements in other circuit metrics such as area, power, and performance. In this paper, approximate arithmetic circuits are proposed by using emerging nanoscale spintronic devices. Leveraging the intrinsic current-mode thresholding operation of spintronic devices, we initially present a hybrid spin-CMOS majority gate design based on a composite spintronic device structure consisting of a magnetic domain wall motion stripe and a magnetic tunnel junction. We further propose a compact and energy-efficient accuracy-configurable adder design based on the majority gate. Unlike most previous approximate circuit designs that hardwire a constant degree of approximation, this design is adaptive to the inherent resilience in various applications to different degrees of accuracy. Subsequently, we propose two new approximate compressors for utilization in fast multiplier designs. The device-circuit SPICE simulation shows 34.58% and 66% improvement in power consumption, respectively, for the accurate and approximate modes of the accuracy-configurable adder, compared to the recently reported domain wall motion-based full adder design. In addition, the proposed accuracy-configurable adder and approximate compressors can be efficiently utilized in the discrete cosine transform (DCT) as a widely-used digital image processing algorithm. The results indicatemore »