Shape memory polymers (SMPs) have attracted significant attention from both industrial and academic researchers, due to their useful and fascinating functionality. One of the most common and studied external stimuli for SMPs is temperature; other stimuli include electric fields, light, magnetic fields, water, and irradiation. Solutions for SMPs have also been extensively studied in the past decade. In this research, we review, consolidate, and report the major efforts and findings documented in the SMP literature, according to different external stimuli. The corresponding mechanisms, constitutive models, and properties (i.e., mechanical, electrical, optical, shape, etc.) of the SMPs in response to different stimulus methods are then reviewed. Next, this research presents and categorizes up-to-date studies on the application of SMPs in dynamic building structures and components. Following this, we discuss the need for studying SMPs in terms of kinetic building applications, especially about building energy saving purposes, and review recent two-way SMPs and their potential for use in such applications. This review covers a number of current advances in SMPs, with a view towards applications in kinetic building engineering.
Fundamental interfacial mechanisms underlying electrofreezing
This article reviews the fundamental interfacial mechanisms underlying electrofreezing (promotion of ice nucleation via the application of an electric field). Electrofreezing has been an active research topic for many decades, with applications in food preservation, cryopreservation, cryogenics and ice formation. There is substantial literature detailing experimental and simulations-based studies, which aim to understand the complex mechanisms underlying accelerated ice nucleation in the presence of electric fields and electrical charge. This work provides a critical review of all such studies. It is noted that application-focused studies of electrofreezing are excluded from this review; such studies have been previously reviewed in literature. This review focuses only on fundamental studies, which analyze the physical mechanisms underlying electrofreezing. Topics reviewed include experimental studies on electrofreezing (DC and AC electric fields), pyroelectricity-based control of freezing, molecular dynamics simulations of electrofreezing, and thermodynamics-based explanations of electrofreezing. Overall, it is seen that electrofreezing can enable disruptive advancements in the control of liquid-to-solid phase change, and that our current understanding of the underlying mechanisms can be significantly improved through further studies of various interfacial effects coming into play.
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- Advances in colloid and interface science
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- National Science Foundation
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