Three new species of Rock Geckos
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Three new species of Rock Geckos
Cnemaspis lineogularissp. nov., C. phangngaensissp. nov., and C. thachanaensissp. nov. of the chanthaburiensisand siamensisgroups are described from the Thai portion of the Thai-Malay Peninsula. These new species are distinguished from all other species in their two respective groups based on a unique combination of morphological characteristics, which is further supported by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 gene (ND2). Cnemaspis lineogularissp. nov. is differentiated from all other species in the chanthaburiensisgroup by having a smaller maximum SVL 38 mm, 13 paravertebral tubercles, enlarged femoral scales, no caudal bands, and a 19.5–23.0% pairwise sequence divergence (ND2). Cnemaspis phangngaensissp. nov. is differentiated from all other species in the siamensis group by having the unique combination of 10 infralabial scales, four continuous pore-bearing precloacal scales, paravertebral tubercles linearly arranged, lacking tubercles on the lower flanks, having ventrolateral caudal tubercles anteriorly present, caudal tubercles restricted to a single paraveterbral row on each side, a single median row of keeled subcaudals, and a 8.8–25.2% pairwise sequence divergence (ND2). Cnemaspis thachanaensissp. nov. is distinguished from all other species in the siamensis group by having 10 or 11 supralabial scales 9–11 infralabial scales, paravertebral tubercles linearly arranged, ventrolateral caudal tubercles anteriorly, caudal tubercles restricted to a single paravertebral row on each side, a single median row of keeled subcaudal scales, lacking a single enlarged subcaudal scale row, lacking postcloaclal tubercles in males, the presence of an enlarged submetatarsal scale at the base if the 1st toe, and a 13.4–28.8% pairwise sequence divergence (ND2). The new phylogenetic analyses place C. punctatonuchalisand C. vandeventeriin the siamensis group with C. punctatonuchalisas the sister species to C. huaseesomand C. vandeventerias the sister species to C. siamensis, corroborating previous hypotheses based on morphology. The discovery of three new karst-dwelling endemics brings the total number of nominal Thai Cnemaspisspecies to 15 and underscores the need for continued field research in poorly known areas of the Thai-Malay Peninsula, especially those that are threatened and often overlooked as biodiversity hot spots.
Adelges( Dreyfusia) piceae(Ratzeburg) species complex is a taxonomically unstable group of six species. Three of the species are cyclically parthenogenetic [ Ad. nordmannianae(Eckstein), Ad. prelli(Grossmann), and Ad. merkeri(Eichhorn)] and three are obligately asexual [ Ad. piceae, Ad. schneideri(Börner), and Ad. nebrodensis(Binazzi & Covassi)]. Some species are high‐impact pests of fir ( Abies) trees, so stable species names are needed to communicate effectively about management. Therefore, to refine species delimitation, guided by a reconstruction of their biogeographic history, we genotyped adelgids from Europe, North America, and the Caucasus Mountains region with 19 microsatellite loci, sequenced the COI DNA barcoding region, and compared morphology. Discriminant analysis of principal components of microsatellite genotypes revealed four distinct genetic clusters. Two clusters were morphologically consistent with Ad. nordmannianae. One of these clusters consisted of samples from the Caucasus Mountains and northern Turkey, and the other included samples from this region as well as from Europe and North America, where Ad. nordmannianaeis invasive. A third cluster was morphologically consistent with Ad. piceae, and included individuals from Europe, where it is native, and North America, where it is invasive. In North America, the majority of Ad. piceaeindividuals were assigned to two geographically widespread clones, suggesting multiple introductions. The fourth cluster included individuals morphologically consistent with Ad. prellior Ad. merkeri. However, based on genetic assignments, hybrid simulations, and approximate Bayesian computation, we find it likely that these are contemporary hybrids between Ad. nordmannianaeand Ad. piceaethat arose independently in Europe and North America, so we propose that Ad. prelliand Ad. merkeriare invalid. Finally, we synonymise Ad. schneideri (syn.n.)with Ad. nordmannianaeand designate Ad. nebrodensisas subspecies Ad. piceae nebrodensis (stat.n.). Our revised taxonomy therefore recognises two species: Ad. nordmannianaeand Ad. piceae, which we estimate to have diverged recently, during one of the last two interglacial periods. Finally, we comment on this species complex being in the midst of transition between sexual and asexual reproduction, a pattern that is probably common in Adelgidae.
Here we give names to three new species of Paraburkholderia that can remain in symbiosis indefinitely in the spores of a soil dwelling eukaryote, Dictyostelium discoideum . The new species P. agricolaris sp. nov. , P. hayleyella sp. nov. , and P. bonniea sp. nov . are widespread across the eastern USA and were isolated as internal symbionts of wild-collected D. discoideum . We describe these sp. nov. using several approaches. Evidence that they are each a distinct new species comes from their phylogenetic position, average nucleotide identity, genome-genome distance, carbon usage, reduced length, cooler optimal growth temperature, metabolic tests, and their previously described ability to invade D. discoideum amoebae and form a symbiotic relationship . All three of these new species facilitate the prolonged carriage of food bacteria by D. discoideum, though they themselves are not food. Further studies of the interactions of these three new species with D. discoideum should be fruitful for understanding the ecology and evolution of symbioses.more » « less
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Species of the genus Phaeohelotium ( Leotiomycetes : Helotiaceae ) are cup fungi that grow on decaying wood, leaves, litter, and directly on soil. Northern Hemisphere species are primarily found on litter and wood, whereas in the Southern Hemisphere the genus includes a mix of saprotrophs as well as taxa that grow on soil in association with ectomycorrhizal trees. The diversity of this genus has not been fully explored in southern South America. Here we describe two species from Chile, Phaeohelotium maiusaurantium sp. nov . and Ph. pallidum sp. nov ., found on soil in Patagonian Nothofagaceae -dominated forests. We present macro- and micromorphological descriptions, illustrations, and molecular phylogenetic analyses. The two new species are placed in Phaeohelotium with high support in our 15-locus phylogeny as well as phylogenetic reconstructions based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene. Our ITS phylogeny places both Ph. maiusaurantium and Ph. pallidum in a well-supported subclade that includes ectomycorrhizal root tip samples from Australasia. Similar species can be separated from these new taxa based on morphological characteristics, biogeography, substrate, and sequence data. In addition, two unnamed species from Chilean Nothofagaceae forests ( Phaeohelotium sp. 1 and Phaeohelotium sp. 2) are documented from scant collections and sequence data and await description until more material becomes available.more » « less