skip to main content

Title: SELF: A High Performance and Bandwidth Efficient Approach to Exploiting Die-Stacked DRAM as Part of Memory
Die-stacked DRAM (a.k.a., on-chip DRAM) provides much higher bandwidth and lower latency than off-chip DRAM. It is a promising technology to break the “memory wall”. Die-stacked DRAM can be used either as a cache (i.e., DRAM cache) or as a part of memory (PoM). A DRAM cache design would suffer from more page faults than a PoM design as the DRAM cache cannot contribute towards capacity of main memory. At the same time, obtaining high performance requires PoM systems to swap requested data to the die-stacked DRAM. Existing PoM designs fall into two categories - line-based and page-based. The former ensures low off-chip bandwidth utilization but suffers from a low hit ratio of on-chip memory due to limited temporal locality. In contrast, page-based designs achieve a high hit ratio of on-chip memory albeit at the cost of moving large amounts of data between on-chip and off-chip memories, leading to increased off-chip bandwidth utilization and significant system performance degradation. To achieve a similar high hit ratio of on-chip memory as pagebased designs, and eliminate excessive off-chip traffic involved, we propose SELF, a high performance and bandwidth efficient approach. The key idea is to SElectively swap Lines in a requested page that more » are likely to be accessed according to page Footprint, instead of blindly swapping an entire page. In doing so, SELF allows incoming requests to be serviced from the on-chip memory as much as possible, while avoiding swapping unused lines to reduce memory bandwidth consumption. We evaluate a memory system which consists of 4GB on-chip DRAM and 12GB offchip DRAM. Compared to a baseline system that has the same total capacity of 16GB off-chip DRAM, SELF improves the performance in terms of instructions per cycle by 26.9%, and reduces the energy consumption per memory access by 47.9% on average. In contrast, state-of-the-art line-based and page-based PoM designs can only improve the performance by 9.5% and 9.9%, respectively, against the same baseline system. « less
; ; ; ; ; ;
Award ID(s):
1547804 1702474 1700719
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
2017 IEEE 25th International Symposium on Modeling, Analysis, and Simulation of Computer and Telecommunication Systems (MASCOTS)
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
187 to 197
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Genomics is the foundation of precision medicine, global food security and virus surveillance. Exact-match is one of the most essential operations widely used in almost every step of genomics such as alignment, assembly, annotation, and compression. Modern genomics adopts Ferragina-Manzini Index (FMIndex) augmenting space-efficient Burrows-Wheeler transform (BWT) with additional data structures to permit ultra-fast exact-match operations. However, FM-Index is notorious for its poor spatial locality and random memory access pattern. Prior works create GPU-, FPGA-, ASIC- and even process-in-memory (PIM)based accelerators to boost FM-Index search throughput. Though they achieve the state-of-the-art FM-Index search throughput, the same as all prior conventional accelerators, FM-Index PIMs process only one DNA symbol after each DRAM row activation, thereby suffering from poor memory bandwidth utilization. In this paper, we propose a hardware accelerator, EXMA, to enhance FM-Index search throughput. We first create a novel EXMA table with a multi-task-learning (MTL)-based index to process multiple DNA symbols with each DRAM row activation. We then build an accelerator to search over an EXMA table. We propose 2-stage scheduling to increase the cache hit rate of our accelerator. We introduce dynamic page policy to improve the row buffer hit rate of DRAM main memory. We also present CHAINmore »compression to reduce the data structure size of EXMA tables. Compared to state-of-the-art FM-Index PIMs, EXMA improves search throughput by 4.9 ×, and enhances search throughput per Watt by 4.8×.« less
  2. Recent algorithmic progression has brought competitive classification accuracy despite constraining neural networks to binary weights (+1/-1). These findings show remarkable optimization opportunities to eliminate the need for computationally-intensive multiplications, reducing memory access and storage. In this paper, we present ParaPIM architecture, which transforms current Spin Orbit Torque Magnetic Random Access Memory (SOT-MRAM) sub-arrays to massively parallel computational units capable of running inferences for Binary-Weight Deep Neural Networks (BWNNs). ParaPIM's in-situ computing architecture can be leveraged to greatly reduce energy consumption dealing with convolutional layers, accelerate BWNNs inference, eliminate unnecessary off-chip accesses and provide ultra-high internal bandwidth. The device-to-architecture co-simulation results indicate ~4x higher energy efficiency and 7.3x speedup over recent processing-in-DRAM acceleration, or roughly 5x higher energy-efficiency and 20.5x speedup over recent ASIC approaches, while maintaining inference accuracy comparable to baseline designs.
  3. Intel's SGX offers state-of-the-art security features, including confidentiality, integrity, and authentication (CIA) when accessing sensitive pages in memory. Sensitive pages are placed in an Enclave Page Cache (EPC) within the physical memory before they can be accessed by the processor. To control the overheads imposed by CIA guarantees, the EPC operates with a limited capacity (currently 128 MB). Because of this limited EPC size, sensitive pages must be frequently swapped between EPC and non-EPC regions in memory. A page swap is expensive (about 40K cycles) because it requires an OS system call, page copying, updates to integrity trees and metadata, etc. Our analysis shows that the paging overhead can slow the system on average by 5×, and other studies have reported even higher slowdowns for memory-intensive workloads. The paging overhead can be reduced by growing the size of the EPC to match the size of physical memory, while allowing the EPC to also accommodate non-sensitive pages. However, at least two important problems must be addressed to enable this growth in EPC: (i) the depth of the integrity tree and its cacheability must be improved to keep memory bandwidth overheads in check, (ii) the space overheads of integrity verification (tree andmore »MACs) must be reduced. We achieve both goals by introducing a variable arity unified tree (VAULT) organization that is more compact and has lower depth. We further reduce the space overheads with techniques that combine MAC sharing and compression. With simulations, we show that the combination of our techniques can address most inefficiencies in SGX memory access and improve overall performance by 3.7×, relative to an SGX baseline, while incurring a memory capacity over-head of only 4.7%.« less
  4. Photo service providers are facing critical challenges of dealing with the huge amount of photo storage, typically in a magnitude of billions of photos, while ensuring national-wide or world-wide satisfactory user experiences. Distributed photo caching architecture is widely deployed to meet high performance expectations, where efficient still mysterious caching policies play essential roles. In this work, we present a comprehensive study on internet-scale photo caching algorithms in the case of QQPhoto from Tencent Inc., the largest social network service company in China. We unveil that even advanced cache algorithms can only perform at a similar level as simple baseline algorithms and there still exists a large performance gap between these cache algorithms and the theoretically optimal algorithm due to the complicated access behaviors in such a large multi-tenant environment. We then expound the reasons behind this phenomenon via extensively investigating the characteristics of QQPhoto workloads. Finally, in order to realistically further improve QQPhoto cache efficiency, we propose to incorporate a prefetcher in the cache stack based on the observed immediacy feature that is unique to the QQPhoto workload. The prefetcher proactively prefetches selected photos into cache before are requested for the first time to eliminate compulsory misses and promote hitmore »ratios. Our extensive evaluation results show that with appropriate prefetching we improve the cache hit ratio by up to 7.4%, while reducing the average access latency by 6.9% at a marginal cost of 4.14% backend network traffic compared to the original system that performs no prefetching.« less
  5. Finite State Automata are widely used to accelerate pattern matching in many emerging application domains like DNA sequencing and XML parsing. Conventional CPUs and compute-centric accelerators are bottlenecked by memory bandwidth and irregular memory access patterns in automata processing. We present Cache Automaton, which repurposes last-level cache for automata processing, and a compiler that automates the process of mapping large real world Non-Deterministic Finite Automata (NFAs) to the proposed architecture. Cache Automaton extends a conventional last-level cache architecture with components to accelerate two phases in NFA processing: state-match and state-transition. State-matching is made efficient using a sense-amplifier cycling technique that exploits spatial locality in symbol matches. State-transition is made efficient using a new compact switch architecture. By overlapping these two phases for adjacent symbols we realize an efficient pipelined design. We evaluate two designs, one optimized for performance and the other optimized for space, across a set of 20 diverse benchmarks. The performance optimized design provides a speedup of 15× over DRAM-based Micron's Automata Processor and 3840× speedup over processing in a conventional x86 CPU. The proposed design utilizes on an average 1.2MB of cache space across benchmarks, while consuming 2.3nJ of energy per input symbol. Our space optimized designmore »can reduce the cache utilization to 0.72MB, while still providing a speedup of 9× over AP.« less