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Title: Comparisons of Electromagnetic Scattering Properties of Real Hailstones and Spheroids

Severe (>2.5 cm) hail causes >$5 billion in damage annually in the United States. However, radar sizing of hail remains challenging. Typically, spheroids are used to represent hailstones in radar forward operators and to inform radar hail-sizing algorithms. However, natural hailstones can have irregular shapes and lobes; these details significantly influence the hailstone’s scattering properties. The high-resolution 3D structure of real hailstones was obtained using a laser scanner for hail collected during the 2016–17 Insurance Institute for Business and Home Safety (IBHS) Hail Field Study. Plaster casts of several record hailstones (e.g., Vivian, South Dakota, 2010) were also scanned. The S-band scattering properties of these hailstones were calculated with the discrete dipole approximation (DDA). For comparison, scattering properties of spheroidal approximations of each hailstone (with identical maximum and minimum dimensions and mass) were calculated with the T matrix. The polarimetric radar variables have errors when using spheroids, even for small hail. Spheroids generally have smaller variations in the polarimetric variables than the real hailstones. This increased variability is one reason why the correlation coefficient [Formula: see text] tends to be lower in observations than in forward-simulated cases using spheroids. Backscatter differential phase δ also is found to have large variance, particularly for large hailstones. Irregular hailstones with a thin liquid layer produce enhanced and more variable values for reflectivity factor at horizontal polarization ZHH, differential reflectivity ZDR, specific differential phase KDP, linear depolarization ratio (LDR), and δ compared with dry hailstones; [Formula: see text] is also significantly reduced.

 
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Award ID(s):
1661679
NSF-PAR ID:
10083543
Author(s) / Creator(s):
 ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  
Publisher / Repository:
American Meteorological Society
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology
Volume:
58
Issue:
1
ISSN:
1558-8424
Page Range / eLocation ID:
p. 93-112
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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