skip to main content


The NSF Public Access Repository (NSF-PAR) system and access will be unavailable from 11:00 PM ET on Friday, May 17 until 8:00 AM ET on Saturday, May 18 due to maintenance. We apologize for the inconvenience.

Title: WearableDL: Wearable Internet-of-Things and Deep Learning for Big Data Analytics—Concept, Literature, and Future
This work introduces Wearable deep learning (WearableDL) that is a unifying conceptual architecture inspired by the human nervous system, offering the convergence of deep learning (DL), Internet-of-things (IoT), and wearable technologies (WT) as follows: (1) the brain, the core of the central nervous system, represents deep learning for cloud computing and big data processing. (2) The spinal cord (a part of CNS connected to the brain) represents Internet-of-things for fog computing and big data flow/transfer. (3) Peripheral sensory and motor nerves (components of the peripheral nervous system (PNS)) represent wearable technologies as edge devices for big data collection. In recent times, wearable IoT devices have enabled the streaming of big data from smart wearables (e.g., smartphones, smartwatches, smart clothings, and personalized gadgets) to the cloud servers. Now, the ultimate challenges are (1) how to analyze the collected wearable big data without any background information and also without any labels representing the underlying activity; and (2) how to recognize the spatial/temporal patterns in this unstructured big data for helping end-users in decision making process, e.g., medical diagnosis, rehabilitation efficiency, and/or sports performance. Deep learning (DL) has recently gained popularity due to its ability to (1) scale to the big data size (scalability); (2) learn the feature engineering by itself (no manual feature extraction or hand-crafted features) in an end-to-end fashion; and (3) offer accuracy or precision in learning raw unlabeled/labeled (unsupervised/supervised) data. In order to understand the current state-of-the-art, we systematically reviewed over 100 similar and recently published scientific works on the development of DL approaches for wearable and person-centered technologies. The review supports and strengthens the proposed bioinspired architecture of WearableDL. This article eventually develops an outlook and provides insightful suggestions for WearableDL and its application in the field of big data analytics.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Mobile Information Systems
Page Range / eLocation ID:
1 to 20
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Remote health monitoring is a powerful tool to provide preventive care and early intervention for populations-at-risk. Such monitoring systems are becoming available nowadays due to recent advancements in Internet-of-Things (IoT) paradigms, enabling ubiquitous monitoring. These systems require a high level of quality in attributes such as availability and accuracy due to patients critical conditions in the monitoring. Deep learning methods are very promising in such health applications to obtain a satisfactory performance, where a considerable amount of data is available. These methods are perfectly positioned in the cloud servers in a centralized cloud-based IoT system. However, the response time and availability of these systems highly depend on the quality of Internet connection. On the other hand, smart gateway devices are unable to implement deep learning methods (such as training models) due to their limited computational capacities. In our previous work, we proposed a hierarchical computing architecture (HiCH), where both edge and cloud computing resources were efficiently exploited, allocating heavy tasks of a conventional machine learning method to the cloud servers and outsourcing the hypothesis function to the edge. Due to this local decision making, the availability of the system was highly improved. In this paper, we investigate the feasibility of deploying the Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) based classification model as an example of deep learning methods in this architecture. Therefore, the system benefits from the features of the HiCH and the CNN, ensuring a high-level availability and accuracy. We demonstrate a real-time health monitoring for a case study on ECG classifications and evaluate the performance of the system in terms of response time and accuracy. 
    more » « less
  2. This article presents a novel hardware-assisted distributed ledger-based solution for simultaneous device and data security in smart healthcare. This article presents a novel architecture that integrates PUF, blockchain, and Tangle for Security-by-Design (SbD) of healthcare cyber–physical systems (H-CPSs). Healthcare systems around the world have undergone massive technological transformation and have seen growing adoption with the advancement of Internet-of-Medical Things (IoMT). The technological transformation of healthcare systems to telemedicine, e-health, connected health, and remote health is being made possible with the sophisticated integration of IoMT with machine learning, big data, artificial intelligence (AI), and other technologies. As healthcare systems are becoming more accessible and advanced, security and privacy have become pivotal for the smooth integration and functioning of various systems in H-CPSs. In this work, we present a novel approach that integrates PUF with IOTA Tangle and blockchain and works by storing the PUF keys of a patient’s Body Area Network (BAN) inside blockchain to access, store, and share globally. Each patient has a network of smart wearables and a gateway to obtain the physiological sensor data securely. To facilitate communication among various stakeholders in healthcare systems, IOTA Tangle’s Masked Authentication Messaging (MAM) communication protocol has been used, which securely enables patients to communicate, share, and store data on Tangle. The MAM channel works in the restricted mode in the proposed architecture, which can be accessed using the patient’s gateway PUF key. Furthermore, the successful verification of PUF enables patients to securely send and share physiological sensor data from various wearable and implantable medical devices embedded with PUF. Finally, healthcare system entities like physicians, hospital admin networks, and remote monitoring systems can securely establish communication with patients using MAM and retrieve the patient’s BAN PUF keys from the blockchain securely. Our experimental analysis shows that the proposed approach successfully integrates three security primitives, PUF, blockchain, and Tangle, providing decentralized access control and security in H-CPS with minimal energy requirements, data storage, and response time. 
    more » « less
  3. Billions of devices in the Internet of Things (IoT) are inter-connected over the internet and communicate with each other or end users. IoT devices communicate through messaging bots. These bots are important in IoT systems to automate and better manage the work flows. IoT devices are usually spread across many applications and are able to capture or generate substantial influx of big data. The integration of IoT with cloud computing to handle and manage big data, requires considerable security measures in order to prevent cyber attackers from adversarial use of such large amount of data. An attacker can simply utilize the messaging bots to perform malicious activities on a number of devices and thus bots pose serious cybersecurity hazards for IoT devices. Hence, it is important to detect the presence of malicious bots in the network. In this paper we propose an evidence theory-based approach for malicious bot detection. Evidence Theory, a.k.a. Dempster Shafer Theory (DST) is a probabilistic reasoning tool and has the unique ability to handle uncertainty, i.e. in the absence of evidence. It can be applied efficiently to identify a bot, especially when the bots have dynamic or polymorphic behavior. The key characteristic of DST is that the detection system may not need any prior information about the malicious signatures and profiles. In this work, we propose to analyze the network flow characteristics to extract key evidence for bot traces. We then quantify these pieces of evidence using apriori algorithm and apply DST to detect the presence of the bots. 
    more » « less
  4. The NTT (Nippon Telegraph and Telephone) Data Corporation report found that 80% of U.S. consumers are concerned about their smart home data security. The Internet of Things (IoT) technology brings many benefits to people's homes, and more people across the world are heavily dependent on the technology and its devices. However, many IoT devices are deployed without considering security, increasing the number of attack vectors available to attackers. Numerous Internet of Things devices lacking security features have been compromised by attackers, resulting in many security incidents. Attackers can infiltrate these smart home devices and control the home via turning off the lights, controlling the alarm systems, and unlocking the smart locks, to name a few. Attackers have also been able to access the smart home network, leading to data exfiltration. There are many threats that smart homes face, such as the Man-in-the-Middle (MIM) attacks, data and identity theft, and Denial of Service (DoS) attacks. The hardware vulnerabilities often targeted by attackers are SPI, UART, JTAG, USB, etc. Therefore, to enhance the security of the smart devices used in our daily lives, threat modeling should be implemented early on in developing any given system. This past Spring semester, Morgan State University launched a (senior) capstone project targeting undergraduate (electrical) engineering students who were thus allowed to research with the Cybersecurity Assurance and Policy (CAP) center for four months. The primary purpose of the capstone was to help students further develop both hardware and software skills while researching. For this project, the students mainly focused on the Arduino Mega Board. Some of the expected outcomes for this capstone project include: 1) understanding the physical board components, 2) learning how to attack the board through the STRIDE technique, 3) generating a Data Flow Diagram (DFD) of the system using the Microsoft threat modeling tool, 4) understanding the attack patterns, and 5) generating the threat based on the user's input. To prevent future threats and attacks from taking advantage of systems vulnerabilities, the practice of "threat modeling" is implemented. This method allows the analysis of potential attackers, including their goals and techniques, while also providing solutions and mitigation strategies. Although Threat modeling can be performed throughout the development of a system, implementing it during developmental stages will prevent further problems in the future. Threat Modeling is crucial because it will help identify any potential threat before it propagates in the system. Identifying threats and providing countermeasures will save both time and money while also keeping the consumers safe. As a result, students must grow to understand how essential detecting and preventing attacks are to protect consumer information systems and networks. At the end of this capstone project, students should take away hands-on skills in cyber defense. 
    more » « less
  5. Internet of Things (IoT) is a connected network of devices that exchange data using different protocols. The application of IoT ranges from intelligent TVs and intelligent Refrigerators to smart Transportation. This research aims to provide students with hands-on training on how to develop an IoT platform that supports device management, connectivity, and data management. People tend to build interconnected devices without having a basic understanding of how the IoT platform backend function. Studying the Arm Pelion will help to understand how IoT devices operate under the hood. This past summer, Morgan State University has hosted undergraduate engineering students and high school STEM teachers to conduct IoT security research in the Cybersecurity Assurance & Policy (CAP) Center. The research project involved integrating various hardware sensor devices and real-time data monitoring using the Arm Pelion IoT development platform. Some of the student/teacher outcomes from the project include: 1) Learning about IoT Technology and security; 2) Programming an embedded system using Arm Mbed development board and IDE; 3 3) Developing a network of connected IoT devices using different protocols such as LWM2M, MQTT, CoAP; 4) Investigating the cybersecurity risks associated with the platform; and 5) Using data analysis and visualization to understand the network data and packet flow. First, the student/teacher must consider the IoT framework to understand how to address the security. The IoT framework describes the essential functions of an IoT network, breaking it down into separate layers. These layers include an application layer, middleware layer, and connectivity layer. The application layer allows the users to access the platform via a smartphone or any other dashboard. The Middleware layer represents the backend system that provides edge devices with data management, messaging, application services, and authentication. Finally, the connectivity layer includes devices that connect the user to the network, including Bluetooth or WiFi. The platform consists of several commercial IoT devices such as a smart camera, baby monitor, smart light, and other devices. We then create algorithms to classify the network data flow; to visualize the packets flow in the network and the structure of the packets data frame over time. 
    more » « less