Contributions of biomass-burning, urban, and biogenic emissions to the concentrations and light-absorbing properties of particulate matter in central Amazonia during the dry season

Abstract. Urbanization and deforestation have important impacts on atmosphericparticulate matter (PM) over Amazonia. This study presents observations andanalysis of PM1 concentration, composition, and opticalproperties in central Amazonia during the dry season, focusing on theanthropogenic impacts. The primary study site was located 70&thinsp;km downwind ofManaus, a city of over 2 million people in Brazil, as part of theGoAmazon2014/5 experiment. A high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol massspectrometer (AMS) provided data on PM1 composition, and aethalometermeasurements were used to derive the absorption coefficient babs,BrC ofbrown carbon (BrC) at 370&thinsp;nm. Non-refractory PM1 mass concentrationsaveraged 12.2&thinsp;µg&thinsp;m−3 at the primary study site, dominated byorganics (83&thinsp;%), followed by sulfate (11&thinsp;%). A decrease inbabs,BrC was observed as the mass concentration of nitrogen-containingorganic compounds decreased and the organic PM1 O:C ratio increased,suggesting atmospheric bleaching of the BrC components. The organic PM1was separated into six different classes by positive-matrix factorization(PMF), and the mass absorption efficiency Eabs associated with eachfactor was estimated through multivariate linear regression ofbabs,BrC on the factor loadings. The largest Eabs values wereassociated with urban (2.04±0.14&thinsp;m2&thinsp;g−1) and biomass-burning(0.82±0.04 to 1.50±0.07&thinsp;m2&thinsp;g−1) sources. Together, these sources contributed at least 80&thinsp;% ofbabs,BrC more »

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Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10107318
Journal Name:
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics
Volume:
19
Issue:
12
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
7973 to 8001
ISSN:
1680-7324
3. Abstract. Triplet excited states of organic matter are formed when colored organicmatter (i.e., brown carbon) absorbs light. While these “triplets” can beimportant photooxidants in atmospheric drops and particles (e.g., theyrapidly oxidize phenols), very little is known about their reactivity towardmany classes of organic compounds in the atmosphere. Here we measure thebimolecular rate constants of the triplet excited state of benzophenone(3BP), a model species, with 17 water-solubleC3C6 alkenes that have either been found in theatmosphere or are reasonable surrogates for identified species. Measured rateconstants (${k}_{\mathrm{ALK}+\mathrm{3}{\mathrm{BP}}^{\ast }}$) vary by a factor of 30 and are in therange of (0.24–7.5)&thinsp;×109&thinsp;M−1&thinsp;s−1. Biogenic alkenesfound in the atmosphere – e.g., cis-3-hexen-1-ol, cis-3-hexenyl acetate, andmethyl jasmonate – react rapidly, with rate constants above 1×109&thinsp;M−1&thinsp;s−1. Rate constants depend on alkene characteristicssuch as the location of the double bond, stereochemistry, and alkylsubstitution on the double bond. There is a reasonable correlation between${k}_{\mathrm{ALK}+\mathrm{3}{\mathrm{BP}}^{\ast }}$ and the calculated one-electron oxidation potential(OP) of the alkenes (more »); in contrast, rate constants are notcorrelated with bond dissociation enthalpies, bond dissociation freeenergies, or computed energy barriers for hydrogen abstraction. Using the OPrelationship, we estimate aqueous rate constants for a number of unsaturatedisoprene and limonene oxidation products with 3BP: values are inthe range of (0.080–1.7)&thinsp;×109&thinsp;M−1&thinsp;s−1, withgenerally faster values for limonene products. Rate constants with lessreactive triplets, which are probably more environmentally relevant, arelikely roughly 25 times slower. Using our predicted rate constants, alongwith values for other reactions from the literature, we conclude thattriplets are probably minor oxidants for isoprene- and limonene-relatedcompounds in cloudy or foggy atmospheres, except in cases in which the tripletsare very reactive.
5. Abstract. Chemical ionization massspectrometry (CIMS) instruments routinely detect hundreds of oxidized organic compoundsin the atmosphere. A major limitation of these instruments is the uncertaintyin their sensitivity to many of the detected ions. We describe thedevelopment of a new high-resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization massspectrometer that operates in one of two ionization modes: using eitherammonium ion ligand-switching reactions such as for ${\mathrm{NH}}_{\mathrm{4}}^{+}$ CIMS orproton transfer reactions such as for proton-transfer-reaction massspectrometer (PTR-MS). Switching between the modes can be done within 2&thinsp;min.The ${\mathrm{NH}}_{\mathrm{4}}^{+}$ CIMS mode of the new instrument has sensitivities of upto 67&thinsp;000&thinsp;dcps&thinsp;ppbv−1 (duty-cycle-corrected ion counts per second perpart per billion by volume) and detection limits between 1 and 60&thinsp;pptv at2σ for a 1&thinsp;s integration time for numerous oxygenated volatileorganic compounds. We present a mass spectrometric voltage scanning procedurebased on collision-induced dissociation that allows us to determine thestability of ammonium-organic ions detected by the ${\mathrm{NH}}_{\mathrm{4}}^{+}$more » CIMS instrument.Using this procedure, we can effectively constrain the sensitivity of theammonia chemical ionization mass spectrometer to a wide range of detectedoxidized volatile organic compounds for which no calibration standards exist.We demonstrate the application of this procedure by quantifying thecomposition of secondary organic aerosols in a series of laboratoryexperiments.