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Title: Frustratingly Easy Personalization for Real-Time Affect Interpretation of Facial Expression
In recent years, researchers have developed technology to analyze human facial expressions and other affective data at very high time resolution. This technology is enabling researchers to develop and study interactive robots that are increasingly sensitive to their human interaction partners’ affective states. However, typical interaction planning models and algorithms operate on timescales that are frequently orders of magnitude larger than the timescales at which real-time affect data is sensed. To bridge this gap between the scales of sensor data collection and interaction modeling, affective data must be aggregated and interpreted over longer timescales. In this paper we clarify and formalize the computational task of affect interpretation in the context of an interactive educational game played by a human and a robot, during which facial expression data is sensed, interpreted, and used to predict the interaction partner’s gameplay behavior. We compare different techniques for affect interpretation, used to generate sets of affective labels for an interactive modeling and inference task, and evaluate how the labels generated by each interpretation technique impact model training and inference. We show that incorporating a simple method of personalization into the affect interpretation process — dynamically calculating and applying a personalized threshold for determining affect feature labels over time — leads to a significant improvement in the quality of inference, comparable to performance gains from other data pre-processing steps such as smoothing data via median filter. We discuss the implications of these findings for future development of affect-aware interactive robots and propose guidelines for the use of affect interpretation methods in interactive scenarios.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
1717362
NSF-PAR ID:
10108260
Author(s) / Creator(s):
;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
International Conference on Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction and workshops
ISSN:
2156-8103
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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  4. Obeid, I. (Ed.)
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The breast corpus subset should be released by November 2021. By December 2021 we should also release the unannotated FCCC data. We are currently annotating urinary tract data as well. We expect to release about 5,600 processed TUH slides in this subset. We have an additional 53,000 unprocessed TUH slides digitized. Corpora of this size will stimulate the development of a new generation of deep learning technology. In clinical settings where resources are limited, an assistive diagnoses model could support pathologists’ workload and even help prioritize suspected cancerous cases. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This material is supported by the National Science Foundation under grants nos. CNS-1726188 and 1925494. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation. REFERENCES [1] N. Shawki et al., “The Temple University Digital Pathology Corpus,” in Signal Processing in Medicine and Biology: Emerging Trends in Research and Applications, 1st ed., I. Obeid, I. Selesnick, and J. Picone, Eds. New York City, New York, USA: Springer, 2020, pp. 67 104. https://www.springer.com/gp/book/9783030368432. [2] J. Picone, T. Farkas, I. Obeid, and Y. Persidsky, “MRI: High Performance Digital Pathology Using Big Data and Machine Learning.” Major Research Instrumentation (MRI), Division of Computer and Network Systems, Award No. 1726188, January 1, 2018 – December 31, 2021. https://www. isip.piconepress.com/projects/nsf_dpath/. [3] A. Gulati et al., “Conformer: Convolution-augmented Transformer for Speech Recognition,” in Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the International Speech Communication Association (INTERSPEECH), 2020, pp. 5036-5040. https://doi.org/10.21437/interspeech.2020-3015. [4] C.-J. Wu et al., “Machine Learning at Facebook: Understanding Inference at the Edge,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on High Performance Computer Architecture (HPCA), 2019, pp. 331–344. https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8675201. [5] I. Caswell and B. Liang, “Recent Advances in Google Translate,” Google AI Blog: The latest from Google Research, 2020. [Online]. Available: https://ai.googleblog.com/2020/06/recent-advances-in-google-translate.html. [Accessed: 01-Aug-2021]. [6] V. Khalkhali, N. Shawki, V. Shah, M. Golmohammadi, I. Obeid, and J. Picone, “Low Latency Real-Time Seizure Detection Using Transfer Deep Learning,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Signal Processing in Medicine and Biology Symposium (SPMB), 2021, pp. 1 7. https://www.isip. piconepress.com/publications/conference_proceedings/2021/ieee_spmb/eeg_transfer_learning/. [7] J. Picone, T. Farkas, I. Obeid, and Y. Persidsky, “MRI: High Performance Digital Pathology Using Big Data and Machine Learning,” Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA, 2020. https://www.isip.piconepress.com/publications/reports/2020/nsf/mri_dpath/. [8] I. Hunt, S. Husain, J. Simons, I. Obeid, and J. Picone, “Recent Advances in the Temple University Digital Pathology Corpus,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Signal Processing in Medicine and Biology Symposium (SPMB), 2019, pp. 1–4. https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/9037859. [9] A. P. Martinez, C. Cohen, K. Z. Hanley, and X. (Bill) Li, “Estrogen Receptor and Cytokeratin 5 Are Reliable Markers to Separate Usual Ductal Hyperplasia From Atypical Ductal Hyperplasia and Low-Grade Ductal Carcinoma In Situ,” Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med., vol. 140, no. 7, pp. 686–689, Apr. 2016. https://doi.org/10.5858/arpa.2015-0238-OA. 
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Next, participants viewed three videos of short animated cartoons, which they were asked to recount in ASL: - Canary Row, Warner Brothers Merrie Melodies 1950 (the 7-minute video divided into seven parts) - Mr. Koumal Flies Like a Bird, Studio Animovaneho Filmu 1969 - Mr. Koumal Battles his Conscience, Studio Animovaneho Filmu 1971 The word list and cartoons were selected as they are identical to the stimuli used in the collection of the Nicaraguan Sign Language video corpora - see: Senghas, A. (1995). Children’s Contribution to the Birth of Nicaraguan Sign Language. Doctoral dissertation, Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, MIT. Demographics: All 14 of our participants were fluent ASL signers. As screening, we asked our participants: Did you use ASL at home growing up, or did you attend a school as a very young child where you used ASL? All the participants responded affirmatively to this question. 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We appreciate your help in improving the quality of the corpus over time by identifying any errors. Acknowledgement: This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under award 1749376: "Collaborative Research: Multimethod Investigation of Articulatory and Perceptual Constraints on Natural Language Evolution." 
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