skip to main content


Title: Counterexample-guided data augmentation
We present a novel framework for augmenting data sets for machine learning based on counterexamples. Counterexamples are misclassified examples that have important properties for retraining and improving the model. Key components of our framework include a counterexample generator, which produces data items that are misclassified by the model and error tables, a novel data structure that stores information pertaining to misclassifications. Error tables can be used to explain the model's vulnerabilities and are used to efficiently generate counterexamples for augmentation. We show the efficacy of the proposed framework by comparing it to classical augmentation techniques on a case study of object detection in autonomous driving based on deep neural networks.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
1645964
NSF-PAR ID:
10109211
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ; ;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Proceedings of the ... International Conference on Artificial Intelligence
ISSN:
2521-7860
Page Range / eLocation ID:
2071-2078
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Tables provide valuable knowledge that can be used to verify textual statements. While a number of works have considered table-based fact verification, direct alignments of tabular data with tokens in textual statements are rarely available. Moreover, training a generalized fact verification model requires abundant labeled training data. In this paper, we propose a novel system to address these problems. Inspired by counterfactual causality, our system identifies token-level salience in the statement with probing-based salience estimation. Salience estimation allows enhanced learning of fact verification from two perspectives. From one perspective, our system conducts masked salient token prediction to enhance the model for alignment and reasoning between the table and the statement. From the other perspective, our system applies salience-aware data augmentation to generate a more diverse set of training instances by replacing non-salient terms. Experimental results on TabFact show the effective improvement by the proposed salience-aware learning techniques, leading to the new SOTA performance on the benchmark. 
    more » « less
  2. We develop a new Bayesian split population survival model for the analysis of survival data with misclassified event failures. Within political science survival data, right-censored survival cases are often erroneously misclassified as failure cases due to measurement error. Treating these cases as failure events within survival analyses will underestimate the duration of some events. This will bias coefficient estimates, especially in situations where such misclassification is associated with covariates of interest. Our split population survival estimator addresses this challenge by using a system of two equations to explicitly model the misclassification of failure events alongside a parametric survival process of interest. After deriving this model,we use Bayesian estimation via slice sampling to evaluate its performance with simulated data, and in several political science applications. We find that our proposed “misclassified failure” survival model allows researchers to accurately account for misclassified failure events within the contexts of civil war duration and democratic survival. 
    more » « less
  3. Attributed networks are a type of graph structured data used in many real-world scenarios. Detecting anomalies on attributed networks has a wide spectrum of applications such as spammer detection and fraud detection. Although this research area draws increasing attention in the last few years, previous works are mostly unsupervised because of expensive costs of labeling ground truth anomalies. Many recent studies have shown different types of anomalies are often mixed together on attributed networks and such invaluable human knowledge could provide complementary insights in advancing anomaly detection on attributed networks. To this end, we study the novel problem of modeling and integrating human knowledge of different anomaly types for attributed network anomaly detection. Specifically, we first model prior human knowledge through a novel data augmentation strategy. We then integrate the modeled knowledge in a Siamese graph neural network encoder through a well-designed contrastive loss. In the end, we train a decoder to reconstruct the original networks from the node representations learned by the encoder, and rank nodes according to its reconstruction error as the anomaly metric. Experiments on five real-world datasets demonstrate that the proposed framework outperforms the state-of-the-art anomaly detection algorithms. 
    more » « less
  4. null (Ed.)
    The classification of Antibody Mediated Rejection (AMR) in kidney transplant remains challenging even for experienced nephropathologists; this is partly because histological tissue stain analysis is often characterized by low inter-observer agreement and poor reproducibility. One of the implicated causes for inter-observer disagreement is the variability of tissue stain quality between (and within) pathology labs, coupled with the gradual fading of archival sections. Variations in stain colors and intensities can make tissue evaluation difficult for pathologists, ultimately affecting their ability to describe relevant morphological features. Being able to accurately predict the AMR status based on kidney histology images is crucial for improving patient treatment and care. We propose a novel pipeline to build robust deep neural networks for AMR classification based on StyPath, a histological data augmentation technique that leverages a light weight style-transfer algorithm as a means to reduce sample-specific bias. Each image was generated in 1.84 ± 0.03 s using a single GTX TITAN V gpu and pytorch, making it faster than other popular histological data augmentation techniques. We evaluated our model using a Monte Carlo (MC) estimate of Bayesian performance and generate an epistemic measure of uncertainty to compare both the baseline and StyPath augmented models. We also generated Grad-CAM representations of the results which were assessed by an experienced nephropathologist; we used this qualitative analysis to elucidate on the assumptions being made by each model. Our results imply that our style-transfer augmentation technique improves histological classification performance (reducing error from 14.8% to 11.5%) and generalization ability. 
    more » « less
  5. Puyol Anton, E ; Pop, M ; Sermesant, M ; Campello, V ; Lalande, A ; Lekadir, K ; Suinesiaputra, A ; Camara, O ; Young, A (Ed.)
    Cardiac cine magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) is the reference standard for assessing cardiac structure as well as function. However, CMRI data presents large variations among different centers, vendors, and patients with various cardiovascular diseases. Since typical deep-learning-based segmentation methods are usually trained using a limited number of ground truth annotations, they may not generalize well to unseen MR images, due to the variations between the training and testing data. In this study, we proposed an approach towards building a generalizable deep-learning-based model for cardiac structure segmentations from multi-vendor,multi-center and multi-diseases CMRI data. We used a novel combination of image augmentation and a consistency loss function to improve model robustness to typical variations in CMRI data. The proposed image augmentation strategy leverages un-labeled data by a) using CycleGAN to generate images in different styles and b) exchanging the low-frequency features of images from different vendors. Our model architecture was based on an attention-gated U-Net model that learns to focus on cardiac structures of varying shapes and sizes while suppressing irrelevant regions. The proposed augmentation and consistency training method demonstrated improved performance on CMRI images from new vendors and centers. When evaluated using CMRI data from 4 vendors and 6 clinical center, our method was generally able to produce accurate segmentations of cardiac structures. 
    more » « less