skip to main content

Title: Oriented Ice Crystals: A Single-Scattering Property Database for Applications to Lidar and Optical Phenomenon Simulations

A database (TAMUoic2019) of the scattering, absorption, and polarization properties of horizontally oriented hexagonal plates (HOPs) and horizontally oriented hexagonal columns (HOCs) at three wavelengths (355, 532, and 1064 nm) is developed for applications to radiative transfer simulations and remote sensing implementations involving oriented ice crystals. The maximum dimension of oriented ice crystals ranges from 50 to 10 000 μm in 165 discrete size bins. The database accounts for 94 incident directions. The single-scattering properties of oriented ice crystals are computed with the physical-geometric optics method (PGOM), which is consistent with the invariant-imbedding T-matrix method for particles with size parameters larger than approximately 100–150. Note that the accuracy of PGOM increases as the size parameter increases. PGOM computes the two-dimensional phase matrix as a function of scattering polar and azimuth angles, and the phase matrix significantly varies with the incident direction. To derive the bulk optical properties of ice clouds for practical radiative transfer applications, the optical properties of individual HOPs and HOCs are averaged over the probability distribution of the tilting angle of oriented ice crystals based on the use of the TAMUoic2019 database. Simulations of lidar signals associated with ice clouds based on the bulk optical properties more » indicate the importance of the fraction of oriented ice crystals and the probability distribution of the tilting angle. Simulations of optical phenomena caused by oriented ice crystals demonstrate that the computed single-scattering properties of oriented ice crystals are physically rational.

« less
Award ID(s):
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
p. 2635-2652
American Meteorological Society
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract. Ice crystal submicron structures have a large impact on the opticalproperties of cirrus clouds and consequently on their radiative effect.Although there is growing evidence that atmospheric ice crystals are rarelypristine, direct in situ observations of the degree of ice crystal complexityare largely missing. Here we show a comprehensive in situ data set of icecrystal complexity coupled with measurements of the cloud angular scatteringfunctions collected during a number of observational airborne campaigns atdiverse geographical locations. Our results demonstrate that an overwhelmingfraction (between 61 % and 81 %) of atmospheric ice crystals sampledin the different regions contain mesoscopic deformations and, as aconsequence, amore »similar flat and featureless angular scattering function isobserved. A comparison between the measurements and a database of opticalparticle properties showed that severely roughened hexagonal aggregatesoptimally represent the measurements in the observed angular range. Based onthis optical model, a new parameterization of the cloud bulk asymmetry factorwas introduced and its effects were tested in a global climate model. Themodelling results suggest that, due to ice crystal complexity, ice-containingclouds can induce an additional short-wave cooling effect of−1.12 W m2 on the top-of-the-atmosphere radiative budget that hasnot yet been considered.« less
  2. Abstract. Regions with high ice water content (HIWC), composed of mainly small ice crystals, frequently occur over convective clouds in the tropics. Such regions can have median mass diameters (MMDs) <300 µm and equivalent radar reflectivities <20 dBZ. To explore formation mechanisms for these HIWCs, high-resolution simulations of tropical convective clouds observed on 26 May 2015 during the High Altitude Ice Crystals – High Ice Water Content (HAIC-HIWC) international field campaign based out of Cayenne, French Guiana, are conducted using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with four different bulk microphysics schemes: the WRF single‐moment 6‐class microphysics scheme (WSM6), the Morrison scheme, andmore »the Predicted Particle Properties (P3) scheme with one- and two-ice options. The simulations are evaluated against data from airborne radar and multiple cloud microphysics probes installed on the French Falcon 20 and Canadian National Research Council (NRC) Convair 580 sampling clouds at different heights. WRF simulations with different microphysics schemes generally reproduce the vertical profiles of temperature, dew-point temperature, and winds during this event compared with radiosonde data, and the coverage and evolution of this tropical convective system compared to satellite retrievals. All of the simulations overestimate the intensity and spatial extent of radar reflectivity by over 30 % above the melting layer compared to the airborne X-band radar reflectivity data. They also miss the peak of the observed ice number distribution function for 0.1« less
  3. Satellite images often feature sun glints caused by the specular reflection of sunlight from water surfaces or from horizontally oriented ice crystals occurring in clouds. Such glints can prevent accurate retrievals of atmospheric and surface properties using existing algorithms, but the glints can also be used to infer more about the glint-causing objects—for example about the microphysical properties and radiative effects of ice clouds. This paper introduces the recently released operational glint product of the Earth Polychromatic Camera (EPIC) onboard the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) spacecraft. Most importantly, the paper describes the algorithm used for generating the key componentmore »of the new product: a glint mask indicating the presence of sun glint caused by the specular reflection of sunlight from ice clouds and smooth water surfaces. After describing the glint detection algorithm and glint product, the paper shows some examples of the detected glints and discusses some basic statistics of the glint population in a yearlong dataset of EPIC images. These statistics provide insights into the performance of glint detection and point toward possibilities for using the glint product to gain scientific insights about ice clouds and water surfaces.« less
  4. Resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs) have come full-circle in the past 10 years after their demonstration in the early 1990s as the fastest room-temperature semiconductor oscillator, displaying experimental results up to 712 GHz and fmax values exceeding 1.0 THz [1]. Now the RTD is once again the preeminent electronic oscillator above 1.0 THz and is being implemented as a coherent source [2] and a self-oscillating mixer [3], amongst other applications. This paper concerns RTD electroluminescence – an effect that has been studied very little in the past 30+ years of RTD development, and not at room temperature. We present experiments andmore »modeling of an n-type In0.53Ga0.47As/AlAs double-barrier RTD operating as a cross-gap light emitter at ~300K. The MBE-growth stack is shown in Fig. 1(a). A 15-μm-diam-mesa device was defined by standard planar processing including a top annular ohmic contact with a 5-μm-diam pinhole in the center to couple out enough of the internal emission for accurate free-space power measurements [4]. The emission spectra have the behavior displayed in Fig. 1(b), parameterized by bias voltage (VB). The long wavelength emission edge is at  = 1684 nm - close to the In0.53Ga0.47As bandgap energy of Ug ≈ 0.75 eV at 300 K. The spectral peaks for VB = 2.8 and 3.0 V both occur around  = 1550 nm (h = 0.75 eV), so blue-shifted relative to the peak of the “ideal”, bulk InGaAs emission spectrum shown in Fig. 1(b) [5]. These results are consistent with the model displayed in Fig. 1(c), whereby the broad emission peak is attributed to the radiative recombination between electrons accumulated on the emitter side, and holes generated on the emitter side by interband tunneling with current density Jinter. The blue-shifted main peak is attributed to the quantum-size effect on the emitter side, which creates a radiative recombination rate RN,2 comparable to the band-edge cross-gap rate RN,1. Further support for this model is provided by the shorter wavelength and weaker emission peak shown in Fig. 1(b) around = 1148 nm. Our quantum mechanical calculations attribute this to radiative recombination RR,3 in the RTD quantum well between the electron ground-state level E1,e, and the hole level E1,h. To further test the model and estimate quantum efficiencies, we conducted optical power measurements using a large-area Ge photodiode located ≈3 mm away from the RTD pinhole, and having spectral response between 800 and 1800 nm with a peak responsivity of ≈0.85 A/W at  =1550 nm. Simultaneous I-V and L-V plots were obtained and are plotted in Fig. 2(a) with positive bias on the top contact (emitter on the bottom). The I-V curve displays a pronounced NDR region having a current peak-to-valley current ratio of 10.7 (typical for In0.53Ga0.47As RTDs). The external quantum efficiency (EQE) was calculated from EQE = e∙IP/(∙IE∙h) where IP is the photodiode dc current and IE the RTD current. The plot of EQE is shown in Fig. 2(b) where we see a very rapid rise with VB, but a maximum value (at VB= 3.0 V) of only ≈2×10-5. To extract the internal quantum efficiency (IQE), we use the expression EQE= c ∙i ∙r ≡ c∙IQE where ci, and r are the optical-coupling, electrical-injection, and radiative recombination efficiencies, respectively [6]. Our separate optical calculations yield c≈3.4×10-4 (limited primarily by the small pinhole) from which we obtain the curve of IQE plotted in Fig. 2(b) (right-hand scale). The maximum value of IQE (again at VB = 3.0 V) is 6.0%. From the implicit definition of IQE in terms of i and r given above, and the fact that the recombination efficiency in In0.53Ga0.47As is likely limited by Auger scattering, this result for IQE suggests that i might be significantly high. To estimate i, we have used the experimental total current of Fig. 2(a), the Kane two-band model of interband tunneling [7] computed in conjunction with a solution to Poisson’s equation across the entire structure, and a rate-equation model of Auger recombination on the emitter side [6] assuming a free-electron density of 2×1018 cm3. We focus on the high-bias regime above VB = 2.5 V of Fig. 2(a) where most of the interband tunneling should occur in the depletion region on the collector side [Jinter,2 in Fig. 1(c)]. And because of the high-quality of the InGaAs/AlAs heterostructure (very few traps or deep levels), most of the holes should reach the emitter side by some combination of drift, diffusion, and tunneling through the valence-band double barriers (Type-I offset) between InGaAs and AlAs. The computed interband current density Jinter is shown in Fig. 3(a) along with the total current density Jtot. At the maximum Jinter (at VB=3.0 V) of 7.4×102 A/cm2, we get i = Jinter/Jtot = 0.18, which is surprisingly high considering there is no p-type doping in the device. When combined with the Auger-limited r of 0.41 and c ≈ 3.4×10-4, we find a model value of IQE = 7.4% in good agreement with experiment. This leads to the model values for EQE plotted in Fig. 2(b) - also in good agreement with experiment. Finally, we address the high Jinter and consider a possible universal nature of the light-emission mechanism. Fig. 3(b) shows the tunneling probability T according to the Kane two-band model in the three materials, In0.53Ga0.47As, GaAs, and GaN, following our observation of a similar electroluminescence mechanism in GaN/AlN RTDs (due to strong polarization field of wurtzite structures) [8]. The expression is Tinter = (2/9)∙exp[(-2 ∙Ug 2 ∙me)/(2h∙P∙E)], where Ug is the bandgap energy, P is the valence-to-conduction-band momentum matrix element, and E is the electric field. Values for the highest calculated internal E fields for the InGaAs and GaN are also shown, indicating that Tinter in those structures approaches values of ~10-5. As shown, a GaAs RTD would require an internal field of ~6×105 V/cm, which is rarely realized in standard GaAs RTDs, perhaps explaining why there have been few if any reports of room-temperature electroluminescence in the GaAs devices. [1] E.R. Brown,et al., Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 58, 2291, 1991. [5] S. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices, 2nd Ed. 12.2.1 (Wiley, 1981). [2] M. Feiginov et al., Appl. Phys. Lett., 99, 233506, 2011. [6] L. Coldren, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits, (Wiley, 1995). [3] Y. Nishida et al., Nature Sci. Reports, 9, 18125, 2019. [7] E.O. Kane, J. of Appl. Phy 32, 83 (1961). [4] P. Fakhimi, et al., 2019 DRC Conference Digest. [8] T. Growden, et al., Nature Light: Science & Applications 7, 17150 (2018). [5] S. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices, 2nd Ed. 12.2.1 (Wiley, 1981). [6] L. Coldren, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits, (Wiley, 1995). [7] E.O. Kane, J. of Appl. Phy 32, 83 (1961). [8] T. Growden, et al., Nature Light: Science & Applications 7, 17150 (2018).« less
  5. Abstract

    Clouds cover on average nearly 70% of Earth’s surface and regulate the global albedo. The magnitude of the shortwave reflection by clouds depends on their location, optical properties, and three-dimensional (3D) structure. Due to computational limitations, Earth system models are unable to perform 3D radiative transfer calculations. Instead they make assumptions, including the independent column approximation (ICA), that neglect effects of 3D cloud morphology on albedo. We show how the resulting radiative flux bias (ICA-3D) depends on cloud morphology and solar zenith angle. We use high-resolution (20–100-m horizontal resolution) large-eddy simulations to produce realistic 3D cloud fields covering threemore »dominant regimes of low-latitude clouds: shallow cumulus, marine stratocumulus, and deep convective cumulonimbus. A Monte Carlo code is used to run 3D and ICA broadband radiative transfer calculations; we calculate the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflected flux and surface irradiance biases as functions of solar zenith angle for these three cloud regimes. Finally, we use satellite observations of cloud water path (CWP) climatology, and the robust correlation between CWP and TOA flux bias in our LES sample, to roughly estimate the impact of neglecting 3D cloud radiative effects on a global scale. We find that the flux bias is largest at small zenith angles and for deeper clouds, while the albedo bias is most prominent for large zenith angles. In the tropics, the annual-mean shortwave radiative flux bias is estimated to be 3.1 ± 1.6 W m−2, reaching as much as 6.5 W m−2locally.

    « less