skip to main content

Title: Delamination identification of laminated composite plates using measured mode shapes
An accurate non-model-based method for delamination identification of laminated composite plates is proposed in this work. A weighted mode shape damage index is formulated using squared weighted difference between a measured mode shape of a composite plate with delamination and one from a polynomial that fits the measured mode shape of the composite plate with a proper order. Weighted mode shape damage indices associated with at least two measured mode shapes of the same mode are synthesized to formulate a synthetic mode shape damage index to exclude some false positive identification results due to measurement noise and error. An auxiliary mode shape damage index is proposed to further assist delamination identification, by which some false negative identification results can be excluded and edges of a delamination area can be accurately and completely identified. Both numerical and experimental examples are presented to investigate effectiveness of the proposed method, and it is shown that edges of a delamination area in composite plates can be accurately and completely identified when measured mode shapes are contaminated by measurement noise and error. In the experimental example, identification results of a composite plate with delamination from the proposed method are validated by its C-scan image.
Authors:
; ; ; ;
Award ID(s):
1762917 1763024
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10111541
Journal Name:
Smart Structures and Systems
Volume:
23
Issue:
2
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
195-205
ISSN:
1738-1584
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Curvatures in mode shapes and operating deflection shapes have been extensively studied for vibration-based structural damage identification in recent decades. Curvatures of mode shapes and operating deflection shapes have proved capable of localizing and manifesting local effects of damage on mode shapes and operating deflection shapes in forms of local anomalies. The damage can be inversely identified in the neighborhoods of the anomalies that exist in the curvatures. Meanwhile, propagating flexural waves have also been extensively studied for structural damage identification and proved to be effective, thanks to their high damage-sensitivity and long range of propagation. In this work, amore »baseline-free structural damage identification method is developed for beam-like structures using curvature waveforms of propagating flexural waves. A multi-resolution local-regression temporal-spatial curvature damage index (TSCDI) is defined in a pointwise manner. A two-dimensional auxiliary TSCDI and a one-dimensional auxiliary damage index are developed to further assist the identification. Two major advantages of the proposed method are: (1) curvature waveforms of propagating flexural waves have relatively high signal-to-noise ratios due to the use of a multi-resolution central finite difference scheme, so that the local effects of the damage can be manifested, and (2) the proposed method does not require quantitative knowledge of a pristine structure associated with a structure to be examined, such as its material properties, waveforms of propagating flexural waves and boundary conditions. Numerical and experimental investigations of the proposed method are conducted on damaged beam-like structures, and the effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by the results of the investigations.« less
  2. This research presents an experimental program executed to understand the strength and stiffness properties of hollow built-up glass compression members that are intended for use in the modular construction of all glass, compression-dominant, shell-type structures. The proposed compression-dominant geometric form has been developed using the methods of form finding and three-dimensional graphical statics. This research takes the first steps towards a new construction methodology for glass structures where individual hollow glass units (HGU) are assembled using an interlocking system to form large, compression-dominant, shell-type structures, thereby exploiting the high compression strength of glass. In this study, an individual HGU hasmore »an elongated hexagonal prism shape and consists of two deck plates, two long side plates, and four short side plates, as is shown in Figure 1. Connections between glass plates are made using a two-sided transparent structural adhesive tape. The test matrix includes four HGUs, two each fabricated with 1 mm and 2 mm thick adhesive tape. All samples are dimensioned 64 cm on the long axis of symmetry, 51 cm on the short axis of symmetry, and are 10 cm in width. Glass plates are all 10 mm thick annealed float glass with geometric fabrication done using 5-axis abrasive water jet cutting. HGU assembly is accomplished using 3D printed truing clips and results in a rigid three-dimensional glass frame. Testing was done with the HGU oriented such that load was introduced on the short side edges of the two deck plates, resulting in an asymmetric load-support condition. A soft interface material was used between the HGU and steel plates of the hydraulic actuator and support for the purpose of avoiding premature cracking from local stress concentrations on the glass edges at the load and support locations. Force was applied in displacement control at 0.25 mm/minute with a full array of displacement and strain sensors. Test results for load vs. center deck plate transverse deflection are shown in Figure 2. All samples failed explosively by flexural buckling with no premature cracking on the load and support edges of the deck plates. Strain and deformation data clearly show the presence of second-order behavior resulting from bending deformation perpendicular to the plane of the deck plates. In general, linear axial behavior transitions to nonlinear second-order behavior, with increasing rates in deflection and strain growth, ultimately ending in glass fracture on the tension surfaces of the buckled deck plates. The failure resulted in near-complete disintegration of the deck plates, but with no observable cracking in any side plates and a secure connection on all adhesive tape. Results of the experimental program clearly demonstrate the feasibility of using HGUs for modular construction of compression dominant all-glass shell-type structures. This method of construction can significantly reduce the self-weight of the structure, and it will inspire the use of sustainable materials in the construction of efficient structures.« less
  3. Abstract This paper presents a novel method to eliminate cosine error in precision concave and convex surface measurement by integrating a displacement probe in a precision spindle. Cosine error in surface profile measurement comes from an angular misalignment between the measurement axis and the axis of motion and negatively affects the measurement accuracy, especially in optical surface measurements. A corrective multiplier can solve this problem for spherical surface measurement, but cosine error cannot be eliminated in the case of complex optical surface measurement because current tools do not measure such surfaces along the direction normal to the measurement plane. Becausemore »the displacement probe is placed on the spindle axis, the spindle error motion will affect the shape precision and surface roughness measurement of optical components such as mirrors and lenses, and the displacement probe will measure a combination of the spindle error motion and the geometry of optical surfaces. Here, the one-dimensional concave, convex, and hollow measurement targets were used, and cosine error was fundamentally eliminated by aligning the probe on the spindle always normal to the measured surface, and compensation was made for the aerostatic bearing spindle rotational error obtained by the reversal method. The results show that this proposed measurement method cannot only eliminate cosine error but also scan the large area quickly and conveniently. In addition, measurement uncertainty and further consideration for future work were discussed.« less
  4. This paper presents a novel method to eliminate cosine error in precision concave and convex surface measurement by integrating a displacement probe in a precision spindle. Cosine error in surface profile measurement comes from an angular misalignment between the measurement axis and the axis of motion and negatively affects the measurement accuracy, especially in optical surface measurements. A corrective multiplier can solve this problem for spherical surface measurement, but cosine error cannot be eliminated in the case of complex optical surface measurement because current tools do not measure such surfaces along the direction normal to the measurement plane. Because themore »displacement probe is placed on the spindle axis, the spindle error motion will affect the shape precision and surface roughness measurement of optical components such as mirrors and lenses, and the displacement probe will measure a combination of the spindle error motion and the geometry of optical surfaces. Here, the one-dimensional concave, convex, and hollow measurement targets were used, and cosine error was fundamentally eliminated by aligning the probe on the spindle always normal to the measured surface, and compensation was made for the aerostatic bearing spindle rotational error obtained by the reversal method. The results show that this proposed measurement method cannot only eliminate cosine error but also scan the large area quickly and conveniently. In addition, measurement uncertainty and further consideration for future work were discussed.« less
  5. In the present article, we follow up our recent work on the experimental assessment of two data-driven nonlinear system identification methodologies. The first methodology constructs a single nonlinear-mode model from periodic vibration data obtained under phase-controlled harmonic excitation. The second methodology constructs a state-space model with polynomial nonlinear terms from vibration data obtained under uncontrolled broadband random excitation. The conclusions drawn from our previous work (experimental) were limited by uncertainties inherent to the specimen, instrumentation, and signal processing. To avoid these uncertainties in the present work, we pursued a completely numerical approach based on synthetic measurement data obtained from simulatedmore »experiments. Three benchmarks are considered, which feature geometric, unilateral contact, and dry friction nonlinearity, respectively. As in our previous work, we assessed the prediction accuracy of the identified models with a focus on the regime near a particular resonance. This way, we confirmed our findings on the strengths and weaknesses of the two methodologies and derive several new findings: First, the state-space method struggles even for polynomial nonlinearities if the training data is chaotic. Second, the polynomial state-space models can reach high accuracy only in a rather limited range of vibration levels for systems with non-polynomial nonlinearities. Such cases demonstrate the sensitivity to training data inherent in the method, as model errors are inevitable here. Third, although the excitation does not perfectly isolate the nonlinear mode (exciter-structure interaction, uncontrolled higher harmonics, local instead of distributed excitation), the modal properties are identified with high accuracy.« less