skip to main content

Title: H_\infty Optimal Estimation for Linear Coupled {PDE} Systems
In this work, we present a Linear Matrix Inequality (LMI) based method to synthesize an optimal H1 estimator for a large class of linear coupled partial differential equations (PDEs) utilizing only finite dimensional measurements. Our approach extends the newly developed framework for representing and analyzing distributed parameter systems using operators on the space of square integrable functions that are equipped with multipliers and kernels of semi-separable class. We show that by redefining the state, the PDEs can be represented using operators that embed the boundary conditions and input-output relations explicitly. The optimal estimator synthesis problem is formulated as a convex optimization subject to LMIs that require no approximation or discretization. A scalable algorithm is presented to synthesize the estimator. The algorithm is illustrated by suitable examples.
Authors:
; ; ;
Award ID(s):
1935453
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10113772
Journal Name:
Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Decision & Control
ISSN:
2576-2370
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Embedding properties of network realizations of dissipative reduced order models Jörn Zimmerling, Mikhail Zaslavsky,Rob Remis, Shasri Moskow, Alexander Mamonov, Murthy Guddati, Vladimir Druskin, and Liliana Borcea Mathematical Sciences Department, Worcester Polytechnic Institute https://www.wpi.edu/people/vdruskin Abstract Realizations of reduced order models of passive SISO or MIMO LTI problems can be transformed to tridiagonal and block-tridiagonal forms, respectively, via dierent modications of the Lanczos algorithm. Generally, such realizations can be interpreted as ladder resistor-capacitor-inductor (RCL) networks. They gave rise to network syntheses in the rst half of the 20th century that was at the base of modern electronics design and consecutively to MOR that tremendously impacted many areas of engineering (electrical, mechanical, aerospace, etc.) by enabling ecient compression of the underlining dynamical systems. In his seminal 1950s works Krein realized that in addition to their compressing properties, network realizations can be used to embed the data back into the state space of the underlying continuum problems. In more recent works of the authors Krein's ideas gave rise to so-called nite-dierence Gaussian quadrature rules (FDGQR), allowing to approximately map the ROM state-space representation to its full order continuum counterpart on a judicially chosen grid. Thus, the state variables can be accessed directly from themore »transfer function without solving the full problem and even explicit knowledge of the PDE coecients in the interior, i.e., the FDGQR directly learns" the problem from its transfer function. This embedding property found applications in PDE solvers, inverse problems and unsupervised machine learning. Here we show a generalization of this approach to dissipative PDE problems, e.g., electromagnetic and acoustic wave propagation in lossy dispersive media. Potential applications include solution of inverse scattering problems in dispersive media, such as seismic exploration, radars and sonars. To x the idea, we consider a passive irreducible SISO ROM fn(s) = Xn j=1 yi s + σj , (62) assuming that all complex terms in (62) come in conjugate pairs. We will seek ladder realization of (62) as rjuj + vj − vj−1 = −shˆjuj , uj+1 − uj + ˆrj vj = −shj vj , (63) for j = 0, . . . , n with boundary conditions un+1 = 0, v1 = −1, and 4n real parameters hi, hˆi, ri and rˆi, i = 1, . . . , n, that can be considered, respectively, as the equivalent discrete inductances, capacitors and also primary and dual conductors. Alternatively, they can be viewed as respectively masses, spring stiness, primary and dual dampers of a mechanical string. Reordering variables would bring (63) into tridiagonal form, so from the spectral measure given by (62 ) the coecients of (63) can be obtained via a non-symmetric Lanczos algorithm written in J-symmetric form and fn(s) can be equivalently computed as fn(s) = u1. The cases considered in the original FDGQR correspond to either (i) real y, θ or (ii) real y and imaginary θ. Both cases are covered by the Stieltjes theorem, that yields in case (i) real positive h, hˆ and trivial r, rˆ, and in case (ii) real positive h,r and trivial hˆ,rˆ. This result allowed us a simple interpretation of (62) as the staggered nite-dierence approximation of the underlying PDE problem [2]. For PDEs in more than one variables (including topologically rich data-manifolds), a nite-dierence interpretation is obtained via a MIMO extensions in block form, e.g., [4, 3]. The main diculty of extending this approach to general passive problems is that the Stieltjes theory is no longer applicable. Moreover, the tridiagonal realization of a passive ROM transfer function (62) via the ladder network (63) cannot always be obtained in port-Hamiltonian form, i.e., the equivalent primary and dual conductors may change sign [1]. 100 Embedding of the Stieltjes problems, e.g., the case (i) was done by mapping h and hˆ into values of acoustic (or electromagnetic) impedance at grid cells, that required a special coordinate stretching (known as travel time coordinate transform) for continuous problems. Likewise, to circumvent possible non-positivity of conductors for the non-Stieltjes case, we introduce an additional complex s-dependent coordinate stretching, vanishing as s → ∞ [1]. This stretching applied in the discrete setting induces a diagonal factorization, removes oscillating coecients, and leads to an accurate embedding for moderate variations of the coecients of the continuum problems, i.e., it maps discrete coecients onto the values of their continuum counterparts. Not only does this embedding yields an approximate linear algebraic algorithm for the solution of the inverse problems for dissipative PDEs, it also leads to new insight into the properties of their ROM realizations. We will also discuss another approach to embedding, based on Krein-Nudelman theory [5], that results in special data-driven adaptive grids. References [1] Borcea, Liliana and Druskin, Vladimir and Zimmerling, Jörn, A reduced order model approach to inverse scattering in lossy layered media, Journal of Scientic Computing, V. 89, N1, pp. 136,2021 [2] Druskin, Vladimir and Knizhnerman, Leonid, Gaussian spectral rules for the three-point second dierences: I. A two-point positive denite problem in a semi-innite domain, SIAM Journal on Numerical Analysis, V. 37, N 2, pp.403422, 1999 [3] Druskin, Vladimir and Mamonov, Alexander V and Zaslavsky, Mikhail, Distance preserving model order reduction of graph-Laplacians and cluster analysis, Druskin, Vladimir and Mamonov, Alexander V and Zaslavsky, Mikhail, Journal of Scientic Computing, V. 90, N 1, pp 130, 2022 [4] Druskin, Vladimir and Moskow, Shari and Zaslavsky, Mikhail LippmannSchwingerLanczos algorithm for inverse scattering problems, Inverse Problems, V. 37, N. 7, 2021, [5] Mark Adolfovich Nudelman The Krein String and Characteristic Functions of Maximal Dissipative Operators, Journal of Mathematical Sciences, 2004, V 124, pp 49184934 Go back to Plenary Speakers Go back to Speakers Go back« less
  2. Abstract Combining the classical theory of optimal transport with modern operator splitting techniques, we develop a new numerical method for nonlinear, nonlocal partial differential equations, arising in models of porous media, materials science, and biological swarming. Our method proceeds as follows: first, we discretize in time, either via the classical JKO scheme or via a novel Crank–Nicolson-type method we introduce. Next, we use the Benamou–Brenier dynamical characterization of the Wasserstein distance to reduce computing the solution of the discrete time equations to solving fully discrete minimization problems, with strictly convex objective functions and linear constraints. Third, we compute the minimizers by applying a recently introduced, provably convergent primal dual splitting scheme for three operators (Yan in J Sci Comput 1–20, 2018). By leveraging the PDEs’ underlying variational structure, our method overcomes stability issues present in previous numerical work built on explicit time discretizations, which suffer due to the equations’ strong nonlinearities and degeneracies. Our method is also naturally positivity and mass preserving and, in the case of the JKO scheme, energy decreasing. We prove that minimizers of the fully discrete problem converge to minimizers of the spatially continuous, discrete time problem as the spatial discretization is refined. We conclude withmore »simulations of nonlinear PDEs and Wasserstein geodesics in one and two dimensions that illustrate the key properties of our approach, including higher-order convergence our novel Crank–Nicolson-type method, when compared to the classical JKO method.« less
  3. We consider the problem of controlling a Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) system over a finite horizon T with fixed and known cost matrices Q,R, but unknown and non-stationary dynamics A_t, B_t. The sequence of dynamics matrices can be arbitrary, but with a total variation, V_T, assumed to be o(T) and unknown to the controller. Under the assumption that a sequence of stabilizing, but potentially sub-optimal controllers is available for all t, we present an algorithm that achieves the optimal dynamic regret of O(V_T^2/5 T^3/5 ). With piecewise constant dynamics, our algorithm achieves the optimal regret of O(sqrtST ) where S is the number of switches. The crux of our algorithm is an adaptive non-stationarity detection strategy, which builds on an approach recently developed for contextual Multi-armed Bandit problems. We also argue that non-adaptive forgetting (e.g., restarting or using sliding window learning with a static window size) may not be regret optimal for the LQR problem, even when the window size is optimally tuned with the knowledge of $V_T$. The main technical challenge in the analysis of our algorithm is to prove that the ordinary least squares (OLS) estimator has a small bias when the parameter to be estimated is non-stationary.more »Our analysis also highlights that the key motif driving the regret is that the LQR problem is in spirit a bandit problem with linear feedback and locally quadratic cost. This motif is more universal than the LQR problem itself, and therefore we believe our results should find wider application.« less
  4. We study the problem of policy evaluation and learning from batched contextual bandit data when treatments are continuous, going beyond previous work on discrete treatments. Previous work for discrete treatment/action spaces focuses on inverse probability weighting (IPW) and doubly robust (DR) methods that use a rejection sampling approach for evaluation and the equivalent weighted classification problem for learning. In the continuous setting, this reduction fails as we would almost surely reject all observations. To tackle the case of continuous treatments, we extend the IPW and DR approaches to the continuous setting using a kernel function that leverages treatment proximity to attenuate discrete rejection. Our policy estimator is consistent and we characterize the optimal bandwidth. The resulting continuous policy optimizer (CPO) approach using our estimator achieves convergent regret and approaches the best-in-class policy for learnable policy classes. We demonstrate that the estimator performs well and, in particular, outperforms a discretization-based benchmark. We further study the performance of our policy optimizer in a case study on personalized dosing based on a dataset of Warfarin patients, their covariates, and final therapeutic doses. Our learned policy outperforms benchmarks and nears the oracle-best linear policy.
  5. In this paper, we consider a temporal logic planning problem in which the objective is to find an infinite trajectory that satisfies an optimal selection from a set of soft specifications expressed in linear temporal logic (LTL) while nevertheless satisfying a hard specification expressed in LTL. Our previous work considered a similar problem in which linear dynamic logic for finite traces (LDL_f), rather than LTL, was used to express the soft constraints. In that work, LDL_f was used to impose constraints on finite prefixes of the infinite trajectory. By using LTL, one is able not only to impose constraints on the finite prefixes of the trajectory, but also to set `soft' goals across the entirety of the infinite trajectory. Our algorithm first constructs a product automaton, on which the planning problem is reduced to computing a lasso with minimum cost. Among all such lassos, it is desirable to compute a shortest one. Though we prove that computing such a shortest lasso is computationally hard, we also introduce an efficient greedy approach to synthesize short lassos nonetheless. We present two case studies describing an implementation of this approach, and report results of our experiment comparing our greedy algorithm with an optimalmore »baseline.« less