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Resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs) have come full-circle in the past 10 years after their demonstration in the early 1990s as the fastest room-temperature semiconductor oscillator, displaying experimental results up to 712 GHz and fmax values exceeding 1.0 THz . Now the RTD is once again the preeminent electronic oscillator above 1.0 THz and is being implemented as a coherent source  and a self-oscillating mixer , amongst other applications. This paper concerns RTD electroluminescence – an effect that has been studied very little in the past 30+ years of RTD development, and not at room temperature. We present experiments and modeling of an n-type In0.53Ga0.47As/AlAs double-barrier RTD operating as a cross-gap light emitter at ~300K. The MBE-growth stack is shown in Fig. 1(a). A 15-μm-diam-mesa device was defined by standard planar processing including a top annular ohmic contact with a 5-μm-diam pinhole in the center to couple out enough of the internal emission for accurate free-space power measurements . The emission spectra have the behavior displayed in Fig. 1(b), parameterized by bias voltage (VB). The long wavelength emission edge is at = 1684 nm - close to the In0.53Ga0.47As bandgap energy of Ug ≈ 0.75 eV at 300 K. The spectral peaks for VB = 2.8 and 3.0 V both occur around = 1550 nm (h = 0.75 eV), so blue-shifted relative to the peak of the “ideal”, bulk InGaAs emission spectrum shown in Fig. 1(b) . These results are consistent with the model displayed in Fig. 1(c), whereby the broad emission peak is attributed to the radiative recombination between electrons accumulated on the emitter side, and holes generated on the emitter side by interband tunneling with current density Jinter. The blue-shifted main peak is attributed to the quantum-size effect on the emitter side, which creates a radiative recombination rate RN,2 comparable to the band-edge cross-gap rate RN,1. Further support for this model is provided by the shorter wavelength and weaker emission peak shown in Fig. 1(b) around = 1148 nm. Our quantum mechanical calculations attribute this to radiative recombination RR,3 in the RTD quantum well between the electron ground-state level E1,e, and the hole level E1,h. To further test the model and estimate quantum efficiencies, we conducted optical power measurements using a large-area Ge photodiode located ≈3 mm away from the RTD pinhole, and having spectral response between 800 and 1800 nm with a peak responsivity of ≈0.85 A/W at =1550 nm. Simultaneous I-V and L-V plots were obtained and are plotted in Fig. 2(a) with positive bias on the top contact (emitter on the bottom). The I-V curve displays a pronounced NDR region having a current peak-to-valley current ratio of 10.7 (typical for In0.53Ga0.47As RTDs). The external quantum efficiency (EQE) was calculated from EQE = e∙IP/(∙IE∙h) where IP is the photodiode dc current and IE the RTD current. The plot of EQE is shown in Fig. 2(b) where we see a very rapid rise with VB, but a maximum value (at VB= 3.0 V) of only ≈2×10-5. To extract the internal quantum efficiency (IQE), we use the expression EQE= c ∙i ∙r ≡ c∙IQE where ci, and r are the optical-coupling, electrical-injection, and radiative recombination efficiencies, respectively . Our separate optical calculations yield c≈3.4×10-4 (limited primarily by the small pinhole) from which we obtain the curve of IQE plotted in Fig. 2(b) (right-hand scale). The maximum value of IQE (again at VB = 3.0 V) is 6.0%. From the implicit definition of IQE in terms of i and r given above, and the fact that the recombination efficiency in In0.53Ga0.47As is likely limited by Auger scattering, this result for IQE suggests that i might be significantly high. To estimate i, we have used the experimental total current of Fig. 2(a), the Kane two-band model of interband tunneling  computed in conjunction with a solution to Poisson’s equation across the entire structure, and a rate-equation model of Auger recombination on the emitter side  assuming a free-electron density of 2×1018 cm3. We focus on the high-bias regime above VB = 2.5 V of Fig. 2(a) where most of the interband tunneling should occur in the depletion region on the collector side [Jinter,2 in Fig. 1(c)]. And because of the high-quality of the InGaAs/AlAs heterostructure (very few traps or deep levels), most of the holes should reach the emitter side by some combination of drift, diffusion, and tunneling through the valence-band double barriers (Type-I offset) between InGaAs and AlAs. The computed interband current density Jinter is shown in Fig. 3(a) along with the total current density Jtot. At the maximum Jinter (at VB=3.0 V) of 7.4×102 A/cm2, we get i = Jinter/Jtot = 0.18, which is surprisingly high considering there is no p-type doping in the device. When combined with the Auger-limited r of 0.41 and c ≈ 3.4×10-4, we find a model value of IQE = 7.4% in good agreement with experiment. This leads to the model values for EQE plotted in Fig. 2(b) - also in good agreement with experiment. Finally, we address the high Jinter and consider a possible universal nature of the light-emission mechanism. Fig. 3(b) shows the tunneling probability T according to the Kane two-band model in the three materials, In0.53Ga0.47As, GaAs, and GaN, following our observation of a similar electroluminescence mechanism in GaN/AlN RTDs (due to strong polarization field of wurtzite structures) . The expression is Tinter = (2/9)∙exp[(-2 ∙Ug 2 ∙me)/(2h∙P∙E)], where Ug is the bandgap energy, P is the valence-to-conduction-band momentum matrix element, and E is the electric field. Values for the highest calculated internal E fields for the InGaAs and GaN are also shown, indicating that Tinter in those structures approaches values of ~10-5. As shown, a GaAs RTD would require an internal field of ~6×105 V/cm, which is rarely realized in standard GaAs RTDs, perhaps explaining why there have been few if any reports of room-temperature electroluminescence in the GaAs devices.  E.R. Brown,et al., Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 58, 2291, 1991.  S. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices, 2nd Ed. 12.2.1 (Wiley, 1981).  M. Feiginov et al., Appl. Phys. Lett., 99, 233506, 2011.  L. Coldren, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits, (Wiley, 1995).  Y. Nishida et al., Nature Sci. Reports, 9, 18125, 2019.  E.O. Kane, J. of Appl. Phy 32, 83 (1961).  P. Fakhimi, et al., 2019 DRC Conference Digest.  T. Growden, et al., Nature Light: Science & Applications 7, 17150 (2018).  S. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices, 2nd Ed. 12.2.1 (Wiley, 1981).  L. Coldren, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits, (Wiley, 1995).  E.O. Kane, J. of Appl. Phy 32, 83 (1961).  T. Growden, et al., Nature Light: Science & Applications 7, 17150 (2018).more » « less
The Ag and In co‐doped PbTe, Ag
nPb100In nTe100+2 n(LIST), exhibits n‐type behavior and features unique inherent electronic levels that induce self‐tuning carrier density. Results show that In is amphoteric in the LIST, forming both In3+and In1+centers. Through unique interplay of valence fluctuations in the In centers and conduction band filling, the electron carrier density can be increased from ≈3.1 × 1018cm−3at 323 K to ≈2.4 × 1019cm−3at 820 K, leading to large power factors peaking at ≈16.0 µWcm−1K−2at 873 K. The lone pair of electrons from In+can be thermally continuously promoted into the conduction band forming In3+, consistent with the amphoteric character of In. Moreover, with rising temperature, the Fermi level shifts into the conduction band, which enlarges the optical band gap based on the Moss–Burstein effect, and reduces bipolar diffusion and thermal conductivity. Adding extra Ag in LIST improves the electrical transport properties and meanwhile lowers the lattice thermal conductivity to ≈0.40 Wm−1K−1. The addition of Ag creates spindle‐shaped Ag2Te nanoprecipitates and atomic‐scale interstitials that scatter a broader set of phonons. As a result, a maximum ZTvalue ≈1.5 at 873 K is achieved in Ag6Pb100InTe102(LIST).
The relationship between hole density and conductivity in electrochemically gated polythiophene films is examined. The films are integrated into electrolyte‐gated transistors (EGTs), so that hole accumulations can be electrochemically modulated up to ≈0.4 holes per thiophene ring (hpr). Polythiophenes include poly(3‐alkylthiophenes) (P3ATs) with four different side chain lengths – butyl (P3BT), hexyl (P3HT), octyl (P3OT), or decyl (P3DT) – and poly[2,5‐bis(3‐dodecylthiophen‐2‐yl)thieno[3,2‐
b]thiophene] (PBTTT) and poly(3,3′′′‐didodecyl[2,2′:5′,2′′:5′′,2′′′‐quaterthiophene]‐5,5′′′‐diyl) (PQT). Analysis of the drain current – gate voltage ( ID– VG) and gate current – gate voltage ( IG– VG) characteristics of the EGTs reveals that all six polythiophene semiconductors exhibited reversible conductivity peaks at 0.12 – 0.15 hpr. Conductivity is suppressed beyond ≈0.4 hpr.The maximum carrier mobilities of the P3AT semiconductors increase, and hysteresis of the conductivity peaks decreases, with increasing alkyl side‐chain length. PBTTT and PQT with reduced side chain densities exhibit the largest hysteresis but have higher hole mobilities. The results suggest that at ≈0.4 hpr, a polaronic sub‐band is filled in all cases. Filling of the sub‐band correlates with a collapse in the hole mobility. The side‐chain dependence of the peak conductivity and hysteresis further suggests that Coulombic ion‐carrier interactions are important in these systems. Tailoring ion‐carrier correlations is likely important for further improvements in transport properties of electrochemically doped polythiophenes.
Black phosphorus (BP) has recently attracted significant attention due to its exceptional physical properties. Currently, high‐quality few‐layer and thin‐film BP are produced primarily by mechanical exfoliation, limiting their potential in future applications. Here, the synthesis of highly crystalline thin‐film BP on 5 mm sapphire substrates by conversion from red to black phosphorus at 700 °C and 1.5 GPa is demonstrated. The synthesized ≈50 nm thick BP thin films are polycrystalline with a crystal domain size ranging from 40 to 70 µm long, as indicated by Raman mapping and infrared extinction spectroscopy. At room temperature, field‐effect mobility of the synthesized BP thin film is found to be around 160 cm2V−1s−1along armchair direction and reaches up to about 200 cm2V−1s−1at around 90 K. Moreover, red phosphorus (RP) covered by exfoliated hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) before conversion shows atomically sharp hBN/BP interface and perfectly layered BP after the conversion. This demonstration represents a critical step toward the future realization of large scale, high‐quality BP devices and circuits.
Low-temperature persistent and transient hole-burning (HB) spectra are presented for the triple hydrogen-bonded L131LH + M160LH + M197FH mutant of Rhodobacter sphaeroides. These spectra expose the heterogeneous nature of the P-, B-, and H-bands, consistent with a distribution of electron transfer (ET) times and excitation energy transfer (EET) rates. Transient P+Q − holes are observed for A fast (tens of picoseconds or faster) ET times and reveal strong coupling to phonons and marker mode(s), while the persistent holes are bleached in a fraction of reaction centers with long-lived excited states characterized by much weaker electron−phonon coupling. Exposed differences in electron−phonon coupling strength, as well as a different coupling to the marker mode(s), appear to affect the ET times. Both resonantly and nonresonantly burned persistent HB spectra show weak blue- (∼150 cm−1) and large, red-shifted (∼300 cm−1) antiholes of the P band. Slower EET times from the H- and B-bands to the special pair dimer provide new insight on the influence of hydrogen bonds on mutation-induced heterogeneity.more » « less