Protecting intellectual property (IP) has become a serious challenge for chip designers. Most countermeasures are tailored for CMOS integration and tend to incur excessive overheads, resulting from additional circuitry or device-level modifications. On the other hand, power density is a critical concern for sub-50 nm nodes, necessitating alternate design concepts. Although initially tailored for error-tolerant applications, imprecise computing has gained traction as a general-purpose design technique. Emerging devices are currently being explored to implement ultra-low-power circuits for inexact computing applications. In this paper, we quantify the security threats of imprecise computing using emerging devices. More specifically, we leverage the innate polymorphism and tunable stochastic behavior of spin-orbit torque (SOT) devices, particularly, the giant spin-Hall effect (GSHE) switch. We enable IP protection (by means of logic locking and camouflaging) simultaneously for deterministic and probabilistic computing, directly at the GSHE device level. We conduct a comprehensive security analysis using state-of-the-art Boolean satisfiability (SAT) attacks; this study demonstrates the superior resilience of our GSHE primitive when tailored for deterministic computing. We also demonstrate how probabilistic computing can thwart most, if not all, existing SAT attacks. Based on this finding, we propose an attack scheme called probabilistic SAT (PSAT) which can bypass the defensemore »
CAS-Lock: A Security-Corruptibility Trade-off Resilient Logic Locking Scheme
Logic locking has recently been proposed as a solution for protecting gate level semiconductor intellectual property (IP). However, numerous attacks have been mounted on this technique, which either compromise the locking key or restore the original circuit functionality. SAT attacks leverage golden IC information to rule out all incorrect key classes, while bypass and removal attacks exploit the limited output corruptibility and/or structural traces of SAT-resistant locking schemes. In this paper, we propose a new lightweight locking technique: CAS-Lock (cascaded locking) which nullifies both SAT and bypass attacks, while simultaneously maintaining nontrivial output corruptibility. This property of CAS-Lock is in stark contrast to the well-accepted notion that there is an inherent trade-off between output corruptibility and SAT resistance. We theoretically and experimentally validate the SAT resistance of CAS-Lock, and show that it reduces the attack to brute-force, regardless of its construction. Further, we evaluate its resistance to recently proposed approximate SAT attacks (i.e., AppSAT). We also propose a modified version of CAS-Lock (mirrored CAS-Lock or M-CAS) to protect against removal attacks. M-CAS allows a trade-off evaluation between removal attack and SAT attack resiliency, while incurring minimal area overhead. We also show how M-CAS parameters such as the implemented Boolean function more »
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- IACR transactions on cryptographic hardware and embedded systems
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- National Science Foundation
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