Infrared and electronic spectra are indispensable for understanding the structural and energetic properties of charged molecules and clusters in the gas phase. However, the presence of isomers can potentially complicate the interpretation of spectra, even if the target molecules or clusters are mass-selected beforehand. Here, we describe an instrument for spectroscopically characterizing charged molecular clusters that have been selected according to both their isomeric form and their mass-to-charge ratio. Cluster ions generated by laser ablation of a solid sample are selected according to their collision cross sections with helium buffer gas using a drift tube ion mobility spectrometer and their mass-to-charge ratio using a quadrupole mass filter. The mobility- and mass-selected target ions are introduced into a cryogenically cooled, three-dimensional quadrupole ion trap where they are thermalized through inelastic collisions with an inert buffer gas (He or He/N2mixture). Spectra of the molecular ions are obtained by tagging them with inert atoms or molecules (Ne and N2), which are dislodged following resonant excitation of an electronic transition, or by photodissociating the cluster itself following absorption of one or more photons. An electronic spectrum is generated by monitoring the charged photofragment yield as a function of wavelength. The capacity of the instrumentmore »
Pulsed Laser-Assisted Helium Ion Nanomachining of Monolayer Graphene—Direct-Write Kirigami Patterns
A helium gas field ion source has been demonstrated to be capable of realizing higher milling resolution relative to liquid gallium ion sources. One drawback, however, is that the helium ion mass is prohibitively low for reasonable sputtering rates of bulk materials, requiring a dosage that may lead to significant subsurface damage. Manipulation of suspended graphene is, therefore, a logical application for He+ milling. We demonstrate that competitive ion beam-induced deposition from residual carbonaceous contamination can be thermally mitigated via a pulsed laser-assisted He+ milling. By optimizing pulsed laser power density, frequency, and pulse width, we reduce the carbonaceous byproducts and mill graphene gaps down to sub 10 nm in highly complex kiragami patterns.
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An ion mobility mass spectrometer coupled with a cryogenic ion trap for recording electronic spectra of charged, isomer-selected clusters
Helium-4 in the superfluid phase (He II) is a two-fluid system that exhibits fascinating quantum hydrodynamics with important scientific and engineering applications. However, the lack of high-precision flow measurement tools in He II has impeded the progress in understanding and utilizing its hydrodynamics. In recent years, there have been extensive efforts in developing quantitative flow visualization techniques applicable to He II. In particular, a powerful molecular tagging velocimetry (MTV) technique, based on tracking thin lines of He2 excimer molecules created via femtosecond laser-field ionization in helium, has been developed in our laboratory. This technique allows unambiguous measurement of the normal fluid velocity field in the two-fluid system. Nevertheless, there are two limitations to this technique: (1) only the velocity component perpendicular to the tracer line can be measured; and (2) there is an inherent error in determining the perpendicular velocity. In this paper, we discuss how these issues can be resolved by advancing the MTV technique. We also discuss two novel schemes for tagging and producing He2 tracers. The first method allows the creation of a tagged He2 tracer line without the use of an expensive femtosecond laser. The second method enables full-space velocity field measurement through tracking small cloudsmore »
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Abstract The extreme sensitivity of 2D materials to defects and nanostructure requires precise imaging techniques to verify presence of desirable and absence of undesirable features in the atomic geometry. Helium-ion beams have emerged as a promising materials imaging tool, achieving up to 20 times higher resolution and 10 times larger depth-of-field than conventional or environmental scanning electron microscopes. Here, we offer first-principles theoretical insights to advance ion-beam imaging of atomically thin materials by performing real-time time-dependent density functional theory simulations of single impacts of 10–200 keV light ions in free-standing graphene. We predict that detecting electrons emitted from the back of the material (the side from which the ion exits) would result in up to three times higher signal and up to five times higher contrast images, making 2D materials especially compelling targets for ion-beam microscopy. This predicted superiority of exit-side emission likely arises from anisotropic kinetic emission. The charge induced in the graphene equilibrates on a sub-fs time scale, leading to only slight disturbances in the carbon lattice that are unlikely to damage the atomic structure for any of the beam parameters investigated here.
Solution-phase printing of exfoliated graphene flakes is emerging as a low-cost means to create flexible electronics for numerous applications. The electrical conductivity and electrochemical reactivity of printed graphene has been shown to improve with post-print processing methods such as thermal, photonic, and laser annealing. However, to date no reports have shown the manipulation of surface wettability via post-print processing of printed graphene. Herein, we demonstrate how the energy density of a direct-pulsed laser writing (DPLW) technique can be varied to tune the hydrophobicity and electrical conductivity of the inkjet-printed graphene (IPG). Experimental results demonstrate that the DPLW process can convert the IPG surface from one that is initially hydrophilic (contact angle ∼47.7°) and electrically resistive (sheet resistance ∼21 MΩ □ −1 ) to one that is superhydrophobic (CA ∼157.2°) and electrically conductive (sheet resistance ∼1.1 kΩ □ −1 ). Molecular dynamic (MD) simulations reveal that both the nanoscale graphene flake orientation and surface chemistry of the IPG after DPLW processing induce these changes in surface wettability. Moreover, DPLW can be performed with IPG printed on thermally and chemically sensitive substrates such as flexible paper and polymers. Hence, the developed, flexible IPG electrodes treated with DPLW could be useful for amore »