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Title: New Neutron Star Equation of State with Quark–Hadron Crossover
We present a much improved equation of state for neutron star matter, QHC19, with a smooth crossover from the hadronic regime at lower densities to the quark regime at higher densities. We now use the Togashi et al.equation of state, a generalization of the Akmal–Pandharipande–Ravenhall equation of state of uniform nuclear matter, in the entire hadronic regime; the Togashi equation of state consistently describes nonuniform as well as uniform matter, and matter at beta equilibrium without the need for an interpolation between pure neutron and symmetric nuclear matter. We describe the quark matter regime at higher densities with the Nambu–Jona–Lasinio model, now identifying tight constraints on the phenomenological universal vector repulsion between quarks and the pairing interaction between quarks arising from the requirements of thermodynamic stability and causal propagation of sound. The resultant neutron star properties agree very well with the inferences of the LIGO/Virgo collaboration, from GW170817, of the pressure versus baryon density, neutron star radii, and tidal deformabilities. The maximum neutron star mass allowed by QHC19 is 2.35 solar masses, consistent with all neutron star mass determinations.
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The Astrophysical journal
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National Science Foundation
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  1. Abstract

    The recent NICER measurement of the radius of the neutron star PSR J0740+6620, and the inferred small variation of radii from 1.4 to 2.1M, reveal key features of the equation of state of neutron star matter. The pressure rises rapidly in the regime of baryon densityn∼ 2–4 times nuclear saturation density,n0—the region where we expect hadronic matter to be undergoing transformation into quark matter—and the pressure in the nuclear regime is greater than predicted by microscopic many-body variational calculations of nuclear matter. To incorporate these insights into the microscopic physics from the nuclear to the quark matter regimes, we construct an equation of state, QHC21, within the framework of quark–hadron crossover. We include nuclear matter results primarily based on the state-of-the-art chiral effective field theory, but also note results of using nuclear matter variational calculations based on empirical nuclear forces. We employ explicit nuclear degrees of freedom only up ton∼ 1.5n0, in order to explore the possibility of further physical degrees of freedom than nucleonic here. The resulting QHC21, which has a peak in sound velocity in ∼2–4n0, is stiffer than the earlier QHC19 below 2n0, predicting larger radii in substantial agreement with the NICER data.


    We model neutron stars as magnetized hybrid stars with an abrupt hadron–quark phase transition in their cores, taking into account current constraints from nuclear experiments and multimessenger observations. We include magnetic field effects considering the Landau level quantization of charged particles and the anomalous magnetic moment of neutral particles. We construct the magnetized hybrid equation of state, and we compute the particle population, the matter magnetization and the transverse and parallel pressure components. We integrate the stable stellar models, considering the dynamical stability for rapid or slow hadron–quark phase conversion. Finally, we calculate the frequencies and damping times of the fundamental and g non-radial oscillation modes. The latter, a key mode to learn about phase transitions in compact objects, is only obtained for stars with slow conversions. For low magnetic fields, we find that one of the objects of the GW170817 binary system might be a hybrid star belonging to the slow extended stability branch. For magnetars, we find that a stronger magnetic field always softens the hadronic equation of state. Besides, only for some parameter combinations a stronger magnetic field implies a higher hybrid star maximum mass. Contrary to previous results, the incorporation of anomalous magnetic moment does not affectmore »the studied astrophysical quantities. We discuss possible imprints of the microphysics of the equation of state that could be tested observationally in the future, and that might help infer the nature of dense matter and hybrid stars.

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  4. We study the possible occurrence of the hadron-quark phase transition (PT) during the merging of neutron star binaries by hydrodynamical simulations employing a set of temperature dependent hybrid equations of state (EoSs). Following previous work we describe an unambiguous and measurable signature of deconfined quark matter in the gravitational-wave (GW) signal of neutron star binary mergers including equal-mass and unequal-mass systems of different total binary mass. The softening of the EoS by the PT at higher densities, i.e. after merging, leads to a characteristic increase of the dominant postmerger GW frequency f_peak relative to the tidal deformability Lambda inferred during the premerger inspiral phase. Hence, measuring such an increase of the postmerger frequency provides evidence for the presence of a strong PT. If the postmerger frequency and the tidal deformability are compatible with results from purely baryonic EoS models yielding very tight relations between f_peak and Lambda, a strong PT can be excluded up to a certain density. We find tight correlations of f_peak and Lambda with the maximum density during the early postmerger remnant evolution. These GW observables thus inform about the density regime which is probed by the remnant and its GW emission. Exploiting such relations we devisemore »a directly applicable, concrete procedure to constrain the onset density of the QCD PT from future GW measurements. We point out two interesting scenarios: if no indications for a PT are inferred from a GW detection, our procedure yields a lower limit on the onset density of the hadron quark PT. On the contrary, if a merger event reveals evidence for the occurrence of deconfined quark matter, the inferred GW parameters set an upper limit on the PT onset density. (abridged)« less
  5. Neutron stars were first posited in the early thirties and discovered as pulsars in late sixties; however, only recently are we beginning to understand the matter they contain. This talk describes the continuing development of a consistent picture of the liquid interiors of neutron stars, driven by four advances: observations of heavy neutron stars with masses in the range of two solar masses; inferences of masses and radii simultaneously for an increasing number of neutron stars in low mass X-ray binaries, and ongoing determinations via the NICER observatory; the observation of the binary neutron star merger, GW170817, through gravitational waves as well as across the electromagnetic spectrum; and an emerging understanding in QCD of how nuclear matter can turn into deconfined quark matter in the interior. We describe the modern quark-hadron crossover equation of state, QHC18 and now QHC19, and the corresponding neutron stars, which agree well with current observations.