skip to main content

Title: The Golden Era of Neutron Stars: From Hadrons to Quarks
Neutron stars were first posited in the early thirties and discovered as pulsars in late sixties; however, only recently are we beginning to understand the matter they contain. This talk describes the continuing development of a consistent picture of the liquid interiors of neutron stars, driven by four advances: observations of heavy neutron stars with masses in the range of two solar masses; inferences of masses and radii simultaneously for an increasing number of neutron stars in low mass X-ray binaries, and ongoing determinations via the NICER observatory; the observation of the binary neutron star merger, GW170817, through gravitational waves as well as across the electromagnetic spectrum; and an emerging understanding in QCD of how nuclear matter can turn into deconfined quark matter in the interior. We describe the modern quark-hadron crossover equation of state, QHC18 and now QHC19, and the corresponding neutron stars, which agree well with current observations.
Authors:
Award ID(s):
1714042
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10126216
Journal Name:
Proc. 8th Int. Conf. Quarks and Nuclear Physics (QNP2018)
Volume:
26
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
011001
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract

    Ever since the observation of peculiar overluminous Type Ia supernovae (SNeIa), exploring possible violations of the canonical Chandrasekhar mass limit (CML) has become a pressing research area of modern astrophysics. Since its first detection in 2003, more than a dozen of peculiar overluminous SNeIa has been detected, but the true nature of the underlying progenitors is still under dispute. Furthermore there are also underluminous SNeIa whose progenitor masses appear to be well below the CML (sub-Chandrasekhar progenitors). These observations call into question how sacrosanct the CML is. We have shown recently in Paper I that the presence of a strong magnetic field, the anisotropy of dense matter, as well as the orientation of the magnetic field itself significantly influence the properties of neutron and quark stars. Here, we study these effects for white dwarfs (WDs), showing that their properties are also severely impacted. Most importantly, we arrive at a variety of mass–radius relations of WDs that accommodate sub- to super-Chandrasekhar mass limits. This urges caution when using WDs associated with SNeIa as standard candles.

  2. Abstract We investigate the properties of anisotropic, spherically symmetric compact stars, especially neutron stars (NSs) and strange quark stars (SQSs), made of strongly magnetized matter. The NSs are described by the SLy equation of state (EOS) and the SQSs by an EOS based on the MIT Bag model. The stellar models are based on an a priori assumed density dependence of the magnetic field and thus anisotropy. Our study shows that not only the presence of a strong magnetic field and anisotropy, but also the orientation of the magnetic field itself, have an important influence on the physical properties of stars. Two possible magnetic field orientations are considered: a radial orientation where the local magnetic fields point in the radial direction, and a transverse orientation, where the local magnetic fields are perpendicular to the radial direction. Interestingly, we find that for a transverse orientation of the magnetic field, the stars become more massive with increasing anisotropy and magnetic-field strength and increase in size since the repulsive, effective anisotropic force increases in this case. In the case of a radially oriented magnetic field, however, the masses and radii of the stars decrease with increasing magnetic-field strength because of the decreasing effectivemore »anisotropic force. Importantly, we also show that in order to achieve hydrostatic equilibrium configurations of magnetized matter, it is essential to account for both the local anisotropy effects as well as the anisotropy effects caused by a strong magnetic field. Otherwise, hydrostatic equilibrium is not achieved for magnetized stellar models.« less
  3. We present a much improved equation of state for neutron star matter, QHC19, with a smooth crossover from the hadronic regime at lower densities to the quark regime at higher densities. We now use the Togashi et al.equation of state, a generalization of the Akmal–Pandharipande–Ravenhall equation of state of uniform nuclear matter, in the entire hadronic regime; the Togashi equation of state consistently describes nonuniform as well as uniform matter, and matter at beta equilibrium without the need for an interpolation between pure neutron and symmetric nuclear matter. We describe the quark matter regime at higher densities with the Nambu–Jona–Lasinio model, now identifying tight constraints on the phenomenological universal vector repulsion between quarks and the pairing interaction between quarks arising from the requirements of thermodynamic stability and causal propagation of sound. The resultant neutron star properties agree very well with the inferences of the LIGO/Virgo collaboration, from GW170817, of the pressure versus baryon density, neutron star radii, and tidal deformabilities. The maximum neutron star mass allowed by QHC19 is 2.35 solar masses, consistent with all neutron star mass determinations.
  4. Abstract It is well-known that stars have the potential to be excellent dark matter detectors. Infalling dark matter that scatters within stars could lead to a range of observational signatures, including stellar heating, black hole formation, and modified heat transport. To make robust predictions for such phenomena, it is necessary to calculate the scattering rate for dark matter inside the star. As we show in this paper, for small enough momentum transfers, this requires taking into account  collective effects within the dense stellar medium. These effects have been neglected in many previous treatments; we demonstrate how to incorporate them systematically, and show that they can parametrically enhance or suppress dark matter scattering rates depending on how dark matter couples to the Standard Model. We show that, as a result, collective effects can significantly modify the potential discovery or exclusion reach for observations of compact objects such as white dwarfs and neutron stars. While the effects are more pronounced for dark matter coupling through a light mediator, we show that even for dark matter coupling via a heavy mediator, scattering rates can differ by orders of magnitude from their naive values for dark matter masses ≲ 100 MeV. We also illustratemore »how collective effects can be important for dark matter scattering in more dilute media, such as the Solar core. Our results demonstrate the need to systematically incorporate collective effects in a wide range of astroparticle contexts; to facilitate this, we provide expressions for in-medium self-energies for a variety of different media, which are applicable to many other processes of interest (such as particle production).« less
  5. We study the non-radial oscillation modes of strange quark stars with a homogeneous core and a crust made of strangelets. Using a 2-component equation-of-state model (core+crust) for strange quark stars that can produce stars as heavy as 2 solar masses, we identify the high-frequency l=2 spheroidal (f, p) in Newtonian gravity, using the Cowling approximation. The results are compared to the case of homogeneous compact stars such as polytropic neutron stars, as well as bare strange stars. We find that the strangelet crust only increases very slightly the frequency of the spheroidal modes, and that Newtonian gravity overestimates the mode frequencies of the strange star, as is the case for neutron stars.