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Brain imaging genetics is an important research topic in brain science, which combines genetic variations and brain structures or functions to uncover the genetic basis of brain disorders. Imaging data collected by different technologies, measuring the same brain distinctly, might carry complementary but different information. Unfortunately, we do not know the extent to which phenotypic variance is shared among multiple imaging modalities, which might trace back to the complex genetic mechanism. In this study, we propose a novel dirty multi-task SCCA to analyze imaging genetics problems with multiple modalities of brain imaging quantitative traits (QTs) involved. The proposed method can not only identify the shared SNPs and QTs across multiple modalities, but also identify the modality-specific SNPs and QTs, showing a flexible capability of discovering the complex multi-SNP-multi-QT associations. Compared with the multi-view SCCA and multi-task SCCA, our method shows better canonical correlation coefficients and canonical weights on both synthetic and real neuroimaging genetic data. This demonstrates that the proposed dirty multi-task SCCA could be a meaningful and powerful alternative method in multi-modal brain imaging genetics.
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We propose a joint dictionary learning framework that couples imaging and genetics data in a low dimensional subspace as guided by clinical diagnosis. We use a graph regularization penalty to simultaneously capture inter-regional brain interactions and identify the representative set anatomical basis vectors that span the low dimensional space. We further employ group sparsity to find the representative set of genetic basis vectors that span the same latent space. Finally, the latent projection is used to classify patients versus controls. We have evaluated our model on two task fMRI paradigms and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data from schizophrenic patients and matched neurotypical controls. We employ a ten fold cross validation technique to show the predictive power of our model. We compare our model with canonical correlation analysis of imaging and genetics data and random forest classification. Our approach shows better prediction accuracy on both task datasets. Moreover, the implicated brain regions and genetic variants underlie the well documented deficits in schizophrenia.
Natural systems, including the brain, often seem chaotic, since they are typically driven by complex nonlinear dynamical processes. Disruption in the fluid coordination of multiple brain regions contributes to impairments in information processing and the constellation of symptoms observed in neuropsychiatric disorders. Schizophrenia (SZ), one of the most debilitating mental illnesses, is thought to arise, in part, from such a network dysfunction, leading to impaired auditory information processing as well as cognitive and psychosocial deficits. Current approaches to neurophysiologic biomarker analyses predominantly rely on linear methods and may, therefore, fail to capture the wealth of information contained in whole EEG signals, including nonlinear dynamics. In this study, delay differential analysis (DDA), a nonlinear method based on embedding theory from theoretical physics, was applied to EEG recordings from 877 SZ patients and 753 nonpsychiatric comparison subjects (NCSs) who underwent mismatch negativity (MMN) testing via their participation in the Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia (COGS-2) study. DDA revealed significant nonlinear dynamical architecture related to auditory information processing in both groups. Importantly, significant DDA changes preceded those observed with traditional linear methods. Marked abnormalities in both linear and nonlinear features were detected in SZ patients. These results illustrate the benefits of nonlinearmore »
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