- Award ID(s):
- Publication Date:
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Journal Name:
- US Rock Mechanics/Geomechanics Symposium
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
More Like this
Hydraulic fracturing arises as a method to enhance oil and gas production, and also as a way to recover geothermal energy. It is, therefore, essential to understand how injecting a fluid inside a rock reservoir will affect its surroundings. Hydraulic fracturing processes can be strongly affected by the interaction between two mechanisms: the elastic effects caused by the hydraulic pressure applied inside fractures and the poro-mechanical effects caused by the fluid infiltration inside the porous media (i.e. fluid diffusivity); this, in turn, is affected by the injection rate used. The interaction between poro-elastic mechanisms, particularly the effect of the fluid diffusivity, in the hydraulic fracturing processes is not well-understood and is investigated in this paper. This study aims to experimentally and theoretically comprehend the effects of the injection rate on crack propagation and on pore pressures, when flaws pre-fabricated in prismatic gypsum specimens are hydraulically pressurized. In order to accomplish this, laboratory experiments were performed using two injection rates (2 and 20 ml/min), applied by an apparatus consisting of a pressure enclosure with an impermeable membrane in both faces of the specimen, which allowed one to observe the growth of a fluid front from the pre-fabricated flaws to the unsaturatedmore »
The chemo-mechanical loading of rocks causes the dissolution and precipitation of multiple phases in the rock. This dissolution and precipitation of load-bearing mineral phases lead to the stress redistribution in neighboring phases, which in turn results in deformational changes of the sample composite. The aim of this study is to investigate the link between microstructural evolution and creep behavior of shale rocks subjected to chemo-mechanical loading through modeling time-dependent deformation induced by the dissolution-precipitation process. The model couples the microstructural evolution of the shale rocks with the stress/strain fields inside the material as a function of time. The modeling effort is supplemented with an experimental study where shale rocks were exposed to CO2-rich brine under high temperature and pressure conditions. 3D snapshots of the sample microstructure were generated using segmented micro-CT images of the shale sample. The time-evolving microstructures were then integrated with the Finite element-based mechanical model to simulate the creep induced by dissolution and precipitation processes independent of the intrinsic viscoelasticity/viscoplasticity of the mineral phases. After computation of the time-dependent viscoelastic properties of the shale composite, the combined microstructure model and finite element model were utilized to predict the time-dependent stress and strain fields in different zones ofmore »
Determination of viscous behavior of shale rocks is key in wide range of applications such as stability of reservoirs, stability of geo-structures subjected to environmental forcing, underground storage of hazardous materials and hydraulic fracturing. Short-term creep strains in hydraulic fracturing can change stress fields and in turn can impact the hydraulic fracturing procedures(H. Sone & Zoback, 2010; Hiroki Sone & Zoback, 2013). While long-term creep strains can hamper the reservoir performance due to the reduction in permeability of the reservoir by closing of fractures and fissures(Du, Hu, Meegoda, & Zhang, 2018; Rybacki, Meier, & Dresen, 2016; Sharma, Prakash, & Abedi, 2019; Hiroki Sone & Zoback, 2014). Owing to these significance of creep strain, it is important to understand the viscoelastic/viscoplastic behavior of shales.
Due to rock mass being commonly subjected to compressive or shear loading, the mode II fracture toughness is an important material parameter for rocks. Fracturing in rocks is governed by the behavior of a nonlinear region surrounding the crack tip called the fracture process zone (FPZ). However, the characteristics of mode II fracture are still determined based on the linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM), which assumes that a pure mode II loading results in a pure mode II fracture. In this study, the FPZ development in Barre granite specimens under mode II loading was investigated using the short beam compression (SBC) test. Additionally, the influence of lateral confinement on various characteristics of mode II fracture was studied. The experimental setup included the simultaneous monitoring of surface deformation using the two-dimensional digital image correlation technique (2D-DIC) to identify fracture mode and characterize the FPZ evolution in Barre granite specimens. The 2D-DIC analysis showed a dominant mixed-mode I/II fracture in the ligament between two notches, irrespective of confinement level on the SBC specimens. The influence of confinement on the SBC specimens was assessed by analyzing the evolution of crack displacement and changes in value of mode II fracture toughness. Larger levels ofmore »
The fracturing in laboratory-scale rock specimens is often characterized by the deformation of the inelastic region surrounding the crack tips, also known as the fracture process zone (FPZ) (Backers et al., 2005; Ghamgosar and Erarslan, 2016). While the influence of the FPZ on mode I fracture in rocks has been extensively investigated, there are limited studies on FPZ development in rocks under pure mode II loading (Ji et al., 2016; Lin et al., 2020; Garg et al., 2021; Li et al., 2021).
Spectral Characteristics of Hydraulic Fracturing-Induced Seismicity Can Distinguish between Activation of Faults and FracturesAbstract Analysis of earthquake spectra can aid in understanding source characteristics like stress drop and rupture complexity. There is growing interest in probing the similarities and differences of fault rupture for natural and human-induced seismic events. Here, we analyze waveform data from a shallow, buried geophone array that recorded seismicity during a hydraulic fracturing operation near Fox Creek, Alberta. Starting from a quality-controlled catalog of 4000 events between magnitude 0 and 3.2, we estimate source-spectral corner frequencies using methods that account for the band-limited nature of the sensor response. The stress-drop values are found to be approximately self-similar, but with a slight magnitude dependence in which larger events have higher stress drop (∼10 MPa). Careful analysis of the relative corner frequencies shows that individual fault and fracture segments experienced systematic variations in relative corner frequency over time, indicating a possible change in the stress state. Clustering analysis of source spectra based on the relative proportion of high- and low-frequency content relative to the Brune model further shows that event complexity evolves over time. In addition, the faults produce earthquakes with systematically larger stress-drop values than the fractures. Combined, these results indicate that the features activated by hydraulic fracturing experience observable changesmore »
McCartney, J.S. ; Tomac, I. (Ed.)This paper focuses on the results from thermal triaxial tests on normally consolidated Georgia Kaolinite. The hypothesis evaluated in this study is whether the initial mean effective stress has an impact on the thermal volume change encountered during drained heating. To that effect, specimens at three different initial mean effective stresses were considered in this study. The clay specimens were first isotropically consolidated to a normally consolidated state, then subjected to a drained heating cooling cycle followed by further mechanical loading to higher effective stresses. The results indicate contractive volumetric strain during drained heating where the volumetric strain was found to increase with increasing initial mean effective stress. A rebound in volume was observed during subsequent cooling where the net change in volume transitioned from zero volume change of the specimen to net contraction of the specimen after a heating cooling cycle as the initial mean effective stress increased. The results indicate the need for considering the effect of initial mean effective stress when assessing in-situ heating as a method of soil improvement.