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Title: Comparison of Single-Ion Conducting Polymer Gel Electrolytes for Sodium, Potassium, and Calcium Batteries: Influence of Polymer Chemistry, Cation Identity, Charge Density, and Solvent on Conductivity
From the standpoint of material diversification and sustainability, the development of so-called “beyond lithium-ion” battery chemistries is important for the future of energy storage. Na, K, and Ca are promising as the basis for battery chemistries in that these elements are highly abundant. Here, a series of single-ion conducting polymer electrolytes (SIPEs) for Na, K, and Ca batteries are synthesized and investigated. The two classes of metal cation neutralized SIPEs compared are crosslinked poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate-x-styrene sulfonate (PEGDMA-SS) and poly(tetrahydrofuran) diacrylate-x-4-styrenesulfonyl (trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (PTHFDA-STFSI); three cation types, three charge densities, and four swelling states are examined. The impact on conductivity of all of these parameters is studied, and in conjunction with small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), it is found that promoting ion dissociation and preventing the formation of dense ionic aggregates facilitates ion transport. These results indicate many of the lessons learned from the Li SIPE literature can be translated to beyond Li chemistries. At 25 °C, the best performing Na/K and Ca exchanged polymers yield active cation conductivity on the order of 10−4 S/cm and 10−6 S/cm, respectively, for ethylene carbonate:propylene carbonate gelled SIPEs, and 10−5 S/cm and 10−7 S/cm, respectively, for glyme gelled SIPEs.
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National Science Foundation
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