skip to main content

Title: Role of the Cytokinin-Activated Type-B Response Regulators in Hormone Crosstalk
Cytokinin is an important phytohormone that employs a multistep phosphorelay to transduce the signal from receptors to the nucleus, culminating in activation of type-B response regulators which function as transcription factors. Recent chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing (ChIP-seq) studies have identified targets of type-B ARABIDOPSIS RESPONSE REGULATORs (ARRs) and integrated these into the cytokinin-activated transcriptional network. Primary targets of the type-B ARRs are enriched for genes involved in hormonal regulation, emphasizing the extensive crosstalk that can occur between cytokinin, auxin, abscisic acid, brassinosteroids, gibberellic acid, ethylene, jasmonic acid, and salicylic acid. Examination of hormone-related targets reveals multiple regulatory points including biosynthesis, degradation/inactivation, transport, and signal transduction. Here, we consider this early response to cytokinin in terms of the hormones involved, points of regulatory crosstalk, and physiological significance.
Authors:
;
Award ID(s):
1856513 1856248
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10151630
Journal Name:
Plants
Volume:
9
Issue:
2
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
166
ISSN:
2223-7747
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract

    Cytokinins are involved in the regulation of many plant growth and development processes, and function in response to abiotic stress. Cytokinin signaling is similar to the prokaryotic two-component signaling systems and includes the transcriptional upregulation of type-A response regulators (RRs), which in turn act to inhibit cytokinin signal response via negative feedback. Cytokinin signaling consists of several gene families and only a handful full of genes is studied. In this study, we demonstrated the function of two highly identical type-A RR genes from rice, OsRR9 and OsRR10, which are induced by cytokinin and only OsRR10 repressed by salinity stress in rice. Loss-of-function mutations give rise to mutant genes, osrr9/osrr10, which have higher salinity tolerance than wild type rice seedlings. The transcriptomic analysis uncovered several ion transporter genes, which were upregulated in response to salt stress in the osrr9/osrr10 mutants relative to the wild type seedlings. These include high-affinity potassium transporters, such as OsHKT1;1, OsHKT1;3 and OsHKT2;1, which play an important role in sodium and potassium homeostasis. In addition, disruption of the genes OsRR9 and OsRR10 also affects the expression of multiple genes related to photosynthesis, transcription and phytohormone signaling. Taken together, these results suggest that the genes OsRR9 andmore »OsRR10 function as negative regulators in response to salinity in rice.

    « less
  2. Abstract

    Structural variation in plant genomes is a significant driver of phenotypic variability in traits important for the domestication and productivity of crop species. Among these are traits that depend on functional meristems, populations of stem cells maintained by the CLAVATA-WUSCHEL (CLV-WUS) negative feedback-loop that controls the expression of the WUS homeobox transcription factor. WUS function and impact on maize development and yield remain largely unexplored. Here we show that the maize dominantBarren inflorescence3(Bif3) mutant harbors a tandem duplicated copy of theZmWUS1gene,ZmWUS1-B, whose novel promoter enhances transcription in a ring-like pattern. Overexpression ofZmWUS1-Bis due to multimerized binding sites for type-B RESPONSE REGULATORs (RRs), key transcription factors in cytokinin signaling. Hypersensitivity to cytokinin causes stem cell overproliferation and major rearrangements ofBif3inflorescence meristems, leading to the formation of ball-shaped ears and severely affecting productivity. These findings establishZmWUS1as an essential meristem size regulator in maize and highlight the striking effect of cis-regulatory variation on a key developmental program.

  3. The phytohormone cytokinin influences many aspects of plant growth and development, several of which also involve the cellular process of autophagy, including leaf senescence, nutrient remobilization, and developmental transitions. TheArabidopsistype-A response regulators (type-A ARR) are negative regulators of cytokinin signaling that are transcriptionally induced in response to cytokinin. Here, we describe a mechanistic link between cytokinin signaling and autophagy, demonstrating that plants modulate cytokinin sensitivity through autophagic regulation of type-A ARR proteins. Type-A ARR proteins were degraded by autophagy in an AUTOPHAGY-RELATED (ATG)5-dependent manner, and this degradation is promoted by phosphorylation on a conserved aspartate in the receiver domain of the type-A ARRs. EXO70D family members interacted with type-A ARR proteins, likely in a phosphorylation-dependent manner, and recruited them to autophagosomes via interaction of the EXO70D AIM with the core autophagy protein, ATG8. Consistently, loss-of-functionexo70D1,2,3mutants exhibited compromised targeting of type-A ARRs to autophagic vesicles, have elevated levels of type-A ARR proteins, and are hyposensitive to cytokinin. Disruption of both type-AARRsandEXO70D1,2,3compromised survival in carbon-deficient conditions, suggesting interaction between autophagy and cytokinin responsiveness in response to stress. These results indicate that the EXO70D proteins act as selective autophagy receptors to target type-A ARR cargos for autophagic degradation, demonstrating modulation of cytokinin signalingmore »by selective autophagy.

    « less
  4. Nitrate is a nutrient and a potent signal that impacts global gene expression in plants. However, the regulatory factors controlling temporal and cell type–specific nitrate responses remain largely unknown. We assayed nitrate-responsive transcriptome changes in five major root cell types of the Arabidopsis thaliana root as a function of time. We found that gene-expression response to nitrate is dynamic and highly localized and predicted cell type–specific transcription factor (TF)–target interactions. Among cell types, the endodermis stands out as having the largest and most connected nitrate-regulatory gene network. ABF2 and ABF3 are major hubs for transcriptional responses in the endodermis cell layer. We experimentally validated TF–target interactions for ABF2 and ABF3 by chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing and a cell-based system to detect TF regulation genome-wide. Validated targets of ABF2 and ABF3 account for more than 50% of the nitrate-responsive transcriptome in the endodermis. Moreover, ABF2 and ABF3 are involved in nitrate-induced lateral root growth. Our approach offers an unprecedented spatiotemporal resolution of the root response to nitrate and identifies important components of cell-specific gene regulatory networks.
  5. Abstract

    Plants respond to wounding stress by changing gene expression patterns and inducing the production of hormones including jasmonic acid. This wounding transcriptional response activates specialized metabolism pathways such as the glucosinolate pathways in Arabidopsis thaliana. While the regulatory factors and sequences controlling a subset of wound-response genes are known, it remains unclear how wound response is regulated globally. Here, we how these responses are regulated by incorporating putative cis-regulatory elements, known transcription factor binding sites, in vitro DNA affinity purification sequencing, and DNase I hypersensitive sites to predict genes with different wound-response patterns using machine learning. We observed that regulatory sites and regions of open chromatin differed between genes upregulated at early and late wounding time-points as well as between genes induced by jasmonic acid and those not induced. Expanding on what we currently know, we identified cis-elements that improved model predictions of expression clusters over known binding sites. Using a combination of genome editing, in vitro DNA-binding assays, and transient expression assays using native and mutated cis-regulatory elements, we experimentally validated four of the predicted elements, three of which were not previously known to function in wound-response regulation. Our study provides a global model predictive of wound responsemore »and identifies new regulatory sequences important for wounding without requiring prior knowledge of the transcriptional regulators.

    « less