skip to main content


Title: Cybersecure Distributed Voltage Control of AC Microgrids
In this paper, the cybersecurity of distributed secondary voltage control of AC microgrids is addressed. A resilient approach is proposed to mitigate the negative impacts of cyberthreats on the voltage and reactive power control of Distributed Energy Resources (DERs). The proposed secondary voltage control is inspired by the resilient flocking of a mobile robot team. This approach utilizes a virtual time-varying communication graph in which the quality of the communication links is virtualized and determined based on the synchronization behavior of DERs. The utilized control protocols on DERs ensure that the connectivity of the virtual communication graph is above a specific resilience threshold. Once the resilience threshold is satisfied the Weighted Mean Subsequence Reduced (WMSR) algorithm is applied to satisfy voltage restoration in the presence of malicious adversaries. A typical microgrid test system including 6 DERs is simulated to verify the validity of proposed resilient control approach.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
1757207
NSF-PAR ID:
10155356
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
2019 IEEE/IAS 55th Industrial and Commercial Power Systems Technical Conference (I&CPS)
Page Range / eLocation ID:
1 to 6
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. With the proliferation of distributed energy resources (DERs) in the distribution grid, it is a challenge to effectively control a large number of DERs resilient to the communication and security disruptions, as well as to provide the online grid services, such as voltage regulation and virtual power plant (VPP) dispatch. To this end, a hybrid feedback-based optimization algorithm along with deep learning forecasting technique is proposed to specifically address the cyber-related issues. The online decentralized feedback-based DER optimization control requires timely, accurate voltage measurement from the grid. However, in practice such information may not be received by the control center or even be corrupted. Therefore, the long short-term memory (LSTM) deep learning algorithm is employed to forecast delayed/missed/attacked messages with high accuracy. The IEEE 37-node feeder with high penetration of PV systems is used to validate the efficiency of the proposed hybrid algorithm. The results show that 1) the LSTM-forecasted lost voltage can effectively improve the performance of the DER control algorithm in the practical cyber-physical architecture; and 2) the LSTM forecasting strategy outperforms other strategies of using previous message and skipping dual parameter update. 
    more » « less
  2. This paper presents a resilient control framework for distributed frequency and voltage control of AC microgrids under data manipulation attacks. In order for each distributed energy resource (DER) to detect any misbehavior on its neighboring DERs, an attack detection mechanism is first presented using a Kullback-Liebler (KL) divergence-based criterion. An attack mitigation technique is then proposed that utilizes the calculated KL divergence factors to determine trust values indicating the trustworthiness of the received information. Moreover, DERs continuously generate a self-belief factor and communicate it with their neighbors to inform them of the validity level of their own outgoing information. DERs incorporate their neighbors' self-belief and their own trust values in their control protocols to slow down and mitigate attacks. It is shown that the proposed cyber-secure control effectively distinguishes data manipulation attacks from legitimate events. The performance of proposed secure frequency and voltage control techniques is verified through the simulation of microgrid tests system implemented on IEEE 34-bus test feeder with six DERs. 
    more » « less
  3. Voltage control in modern electric power distribution systems has become challenging due to the increasing penetration of distributed energy resources (DER). The current state-of-the-art voltage control is based on static/pre-determined DER volt-var curves. Static volt-var curves do not provide sufficient flexibility to address the temporal and spatial aspects of the voltage control problem in a power system with a large number of DER. This paper presents a simple, scalable, and robust distributed optimization framework (DOF) for optimizing voltage control. The proposed framework allows for data-driven distributed voltage optimization in a power distribution system. This method enhances voltage control by optimizing volt-var curve parameters of inverters in a distributed manner based on a cellular computational network (CCN) representation of the power distribution system. The cellular optimization approach enables the system-wide optimization. The cells to be optimized may be prioritized and two methods namely, graph and impact-based methods, are studied. The impact-based method requires extra initial computational efforts but thereafter provides better computational throughput than the graph-based method. The DOF is illustrated on a modified standard distribution test case with several DERs. The results from the test case demonstrate that the DOF based volt-var optimization results in consistently better performance than the state-of-the-art volt-var control. 
    more » « less
  4. Distributed energy resource management system (DERMS) is a supervision system managing distributed energy resources (DERs) in a distribution system. However, the centralized DERMS has a potential risk of a single point of failure posed by cyber-attacks (e.g., denial of service attacks and ransomware attacks). This will cause visibility and control losses of the DER system. In this paper, blockchain (BC) technology is leveraged to enhance the resilience of DERMS by recovering the operation of a DER system during the DERMS outage. The proposed BC system is a governance platform for the DER system proving security and resilient control services on behalf of the DERMS until the availability of the DERMS is recovered. The feasibility of the proposed BC-integrated DERMS system toward a resilient DER system is validated by using a cyber-physical co-simulation testbed. 
    more » « less
  5. null (Ed.)
    The interconnection of distributed energy resources (DERs) in microgrids (MGs) operating in both islanded and grid-connected modes require coordinated control strategies. DERs are interfaced with voltage source inverters (VSIs) enabling interconnection. This paper proposes a load demand sharing scheme for the parallel operation of VSIs in an islanded voltage source inverter-based microgrid (VSI-MG). The ride-through capability of a heavily loaded VSI-MG, where some of the VSIs are fully loaded due to the occurrence of an event is investigated. In developing analytical equations to model the VSI, the concept of virtual synchronous machines (VSM) is applied to enable the VSI mimic the inertia effect of synchronous machines. A power frame transformation (PFT) that takes the line ratios of the MG network into account is also incorporated to yield satisfactory transient responses of both network frequency and bus voltages in the MG network. A Jacobian-based method is then developed to take into account the operational capacity of each VSI in the VSI-MG. The resulting amendable droop control constrains the VSIs within their power capabilities when an event occurs. Simulation results presented within demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed procedure which has great potential to facilitate efforts in maintaining system reliability and resiliency. 
    more » « less